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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4428 matches for " Paola Sgadò "
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Altered GABAergic markers, increased binocularity and reduced plasticity in the visual cortex of Engrailed-2 knockout mice
Sacha Genovesi,Paola Sgadò,Matteo Caleo,Yuri Bozzi
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00163
Abstract: The maturation of the GABAergic system is a crucial determinant of cortical development during early postnatal life, when sensory circuits undergo a process of activity-dependent refinement. An altered excitatory/inhibitory balance has been proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The homeobox-containing transcription factor Engrailed-2 (En2) has been associated to ASD, and En2 knockout (En2?/?) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a partial loss of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Here we studied GABAergic markers and cortical function in En2?/? mice, by exploiting the well-known anatomical and functional features of the mouse visual system. En2 is expressed in the visual cortex at postnatal day 30 and during adulthood. When compared to age-matched En2+/+ controls, En2?/? mice showed an increased number of parvalbumin (PV+), somatostatin (SOM+), and neuropeptide Y (NPY+) positive interneurons in the visual cortex at P30, and a decreased number of SOM+ and NPY+ interneurons in the adult. At both ages, the differences in distinct interneuron populations observed between En2+/+ and En2?/? mice were layer-specific. Adult En2?/? mice displayed a normal eye-specific segregation in the retino-geniculate pathway, and in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed a normal development of basic functional properties (acuity, response latency, receptive field size) of the En2?/? primary visual cortex. However, a significant increase of binocularity was found in P30 and adult En2?/? mice, as compared to age-matched controls. Differently from what observed in En2+/+ mice, the En2?/? primary visual cortex did not respond to a brief monocular deprivation performed between P26 and P29, during the so-called “critical period.” These data suggest that altered GABAergic circuits impact baseline binocularity and plasticity in En2?/? mice, while leaving other visual functional properties unaffected.
Elevated P75NTR expression causes death of engrailed-deficient midbrain dopaminergic neurons by Erk1/2 suppression
Kambiz N Alavian, Paola Sgadò, Lavinia Alberi, Srinivasa Subramaniam, Horst H Simon
Neural Development , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8104-4-11
Abstract: In this work, we show that the dose of Engrailed is inversely correlated to the expression level of the pan-neurotrophin receptor gene P75NTR (Ngfr). Loss of mesDA neurons in the Engrailed-null mutant embryos is caused by elevated expression of this neurotrophin receptor: Unusually, in this case, the cell death signal of P75NTR is mediated by suppression of Erk1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activity. The reduction in expression of Engrailed, possibly related to the higher levels of P75NTR, also decreases mitochondrial stability. In particular, the dose of Engrailed determines the sensitivity to cell death induced by the classic Parkinson-model toxin MPTP and to inhibition of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins.Our study links the survival function of the Engrailed genes in developing mesDA neurons to the regulation of P75NTR and the sensitivity of these neurons to mitochondrial insult. The similarities to the disease etiology in combination with the nigral phenotype of En1+/-;En2-/- mice suggests that haplotype variations in the Engrailed genes and/or P75NTR that alter their expression levels could, in part, determine susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.Mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons are the main source of dopamine in the mammalian central nervous system. They are located in three distinct nuclei, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmentum and retrorubral field. Their main innervation targets are the basal ganglia, where they play key roles in the control of emotion, motivation and motor behavior, documented by their connection to schizophrenia, addiction and, most prominently, to Parkinson's disease (PD) [1,2]. The main characteristic of PD is the slow progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, causing diminished release of dopamine in the caudate putamen and debilitating motor deficits. Although the molecular causes for the selective vulnerability of this neuronal pop
The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons
Paola Sgadò, Elisabetta Ferretti, Daniel Grbec, Yuri Bozzi, Horst H Simon
Neural Development , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8104-7-24
Abstract: Here, we provide evidence that Pbx1 is expressed in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from embryonic day 11 into adulthood and determines some of the cellular properties of this neuronal population. In Pbx1-deficient mice, the mesencephalic dopaminergic axons stall during mid-gestation at the border between di- and telencephalon before entering the ganglionic eminence, leading to a loose organization of the axonal bundle and partial misrouting. In Pbx1-deficient dopaminergic neurons, the high affinity netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colon cancer (DCC), is down-regulated. Interestingly, we found several conserved Pbx1 binding sites in the first intron of DCC, suggesting a direct regulation of DCC transcription by Pbx1.The expression of Pbx1 in dopaminergic neurons and its regulation of DCC expression make it an important player in defining the axonal guidance of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, with possible implications for the normal physiology of the nigro-striatal system as well as processes related to the degeneration of neurons during the course of Parkinson’s disease.
The Employment of Young Graduates in the Period 2000-2010: A Comparison between Six European Countries  [PDF]
Paola Potestio
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25099
Abstract: The paper aims to assess the relative importance of participation and unemployment and the interaction between them in affecting the evolution of employment rates of young graduates in selected European countries. The Taylor formula is used to read the behaviour of employment rates in terms of movements in activity and unemployment rates. Using this analytical procedure, the comparison between the selected countries underscores two aspects in particular: the progressive isolation of Italy, due to the poor results of the reform of the higher education system at the end of the 1990s, and the widespread progress within the female segments. On a more general plane, the heterogeneity of European labour markets for young graduates assumes new characteristics in the decade but—it is argued—it remains significant. The relative importance of participation and unemployment, the impact of the reforms of the higher education system, the reaction to the crisis of the late 2000s, and the gender aspects sharply differentiate the evolution of young graduate employment in the individual countries.
An Integrated Statistical Model to Measure Academic Teaching Quality  [PDF]
Paola Cerchiello, Paolo Giudici
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.25063
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a new proposal for the classification of Academic institutions in terms of quality of teaching. Our methodological proposal borrows concepts from operational risk, such as scorecard models, employed to assess University performances, on the basis of both the perceived and the actual quality. We propose to summarize opinion data using new non parametric indexes able to exploit efficiently the ordinal nature of the analysed variables and to integrate different sources of data. In particular we show how web survey methods can improve the quality and robustness of collected data, especially when integrated with students career data. Empirical evidence is given on the basis of real data from the University of Pavia.
Dirichlet Compound Multinomials Statistical Models  [PDF]
Paola Cerchiello, Paolo Giudici
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A288

This contribution deals with a generative approach for the analysis of textual data. Instead of creating heuristic rules forthe representation of documents and word counts, we employ a distribution able to model words along texts considering different topics. In this regard, following Minka proposal (2003), we implement a Dirichlet Compound Multinomial (DCM) distribution, then we propose an extension called sbDCM that takes explicitly into account the different latent topics that compound the document. We follow two alternative approaches: on one hand the topics can be unknown, thus to be estimated on the basis of the data, on the other hand topics are determined in advance on the basis of a predefined ontological schema. The two possible approaches are assessed on the basis of real data.

Intraplate Transtensional Tectonics in the East Antarctic Craton: Insight from Buried Subglacial Bedrock in the Lake Vostok—Dome C Region  [PDF]
Paola Cianfarra, Francesco Salvini
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.49122

This study presents the results of forward numerical models of a series of sections of the Aurora Trench (East Antarctica) derived from radio echo-sounding data that allowed to reconstruct the 3D shape of the Aurora Fault, a crustal listric normal fault characterized by a length exceeding 100 km. A similar extensional fault setting allows to replicate the asymmetric buried morphology of the magnetic basement at the Lake Vostok depression derived by the available gravity and magnetic profiles. Both the Aurora and Vostok listric fault reach their basal decollment at 34 km depth, possibly the base of the crust in this intracratonic environment. Integration of these results with the existing geologic interpretations of the tectonic origin of the Concordia Trench by normal faulting allowed to frame the Concordia, Aurora and Vostok normal faults within an intraplate transtensional corridor with a left-lateral movement component. The westward projection of the proposed strike-slip deformation belt may develop in correspondence of an older tectonic lineament stretching from the Eastern flanks of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mts to the Lambert rift and characterized by a poly-phased complex tectonic history. The possible Cenozoic reactivation of these structures is discussed in the paper.

Creativity & Innovation: Four Key Issues from a Literature Review  [PDF]
Francesco Pisanu, Paola Menapace
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.53023

This paper is about creativity and innovation in the educational field. Through a literature review, we describe the results of two decades of research on creativity and innovation in the educational and organizational field, to underline what seemed to work and what did not, to enable these processes functioning effectively. In this literature review, a search of publications dealing with the issues of innovation and creativity and the links between these two issues has been made. We decided to put these studies in four theoretical, ex-post created, dimensions: organizational structures, individual characteristics, training methods and pedagogical practices and training content. The content of this article is based on one of the outputs of the European Commission funded project, named CLEAR (Creativity and innovation: pedagogical framework for the learning chain).

The Labor Productivity Slowdown: The True Issue of the Italian Economy  [PDF]
Paola Parravicini, Alessandro Graffi
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.91016
Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of the weak growth in Italian labor productivity with particular reference to the period between 2000 and 2016. In analyzing the data relating to labor productivity, the influence of capital productivity and multifactor productivity were also considered. The analysis shows how the weak growth in labor productivity is due to some peculiar structural aspects of the Italian production system. At the end of the paper some comments are offered on possible policy interventions.
I servizi della rete L.U.C.I.A.
Paola Tentoni,Paola Rossi
Bollettino del CILEA , 1999, DOI: 10.1472/bc.v68igiugno.996
Abstract: Proseguono le attività del CILEA per la fornitura di servizi Internet a valore aggiunto, diretti non solo agli Enti istituzionali (Università, Enti di ricerca), ma anche alle imprese, Enti pubblici, Associazioni, alcuni dei quali particolarmente innovativi e qualificati.
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