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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4451 matches for " Paola Fermo "
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Paola Fermo,Eleonora Delnevo,Mariette de Vos,Martina Andreoli
E-Preservation Science , 2009,
Abstract: Villa Adriana is a Roman building dating back to 117-138AD. The emperor Hadrian built this construction which ischaracterised by numerous buildings of different uses:pavilions, gardens and nymphaeums. In our work we aimedto identify the materials used both in pigments and in mortars(binders and aggregates). Attenuated Total Reflection(ATR) infrared spectroscopy and Scanning ElectronMicroscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy(SEM-EDS) have been used to study the pigments, whichhave been classified as inorganic. Expensive pigments,such as Egyptian blue and cinnabar have been used. X-RayDiffraction (XRD), obser vations by polarizing microscopyand ATR-FTIR analyses have been used to study mortars,which have been divided in two fractions: binder and aggregate,after an acidic digestion. The material used to preparethe fresco preparation layers is a local aggregate ofvolcanic origin coming from the Alban Hills, while the carbonaticbinders come from a different area in Abruzzese.
Molecular Insights on Pathogenic Effects of Mutations Causing Phosphoglycerate Kinase Deficiency
Laurent R. Chiarelli, Simone M. Morera, Paola Bianchi, Elisa Fermo, Alberto Zanella, Alessandro Galizzi, Giovanna Valentini
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032065
Abstract: Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) catalyzes an important ATP-generating step in glycolysis. PGK1 deficiency is an uncommon X-linked inherited disorder, generally characterized by various combinations of non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, neurological dysfunctions, and myopathies. Patients rarely exhibit all three clinical features. To provide a molecular framework to the different pathological manifestations, all known mutations were reviewed and 16 mutant enzymes, obtained as recombinant forms, were functionally and structurally characterized. Most mutations heavily affect thermal stability and to a different extent catalytic efficiency, in line with the remarkably low PGK activity clinically observed in the patients. Mutations grossly impairing protein stability, but moderately affecting kinetic properties (p.I47N, p.L89P, p.C316R, p.S320N, and p.A354P) present the most homogeneous correlation with the clinical phenotype. Patients carrying these mutations display hemolytic anemia and neurological disorders, and,except for p.A354P variant, no myopaty. Variants highly perturbed in both catalytic efficiency (p.G158V, p.D164V, p.K191del, D285V, p.D315N, and p.T378P) and heat stability (all, but p.T378P) result to be mainly associated with myopathy alone. Finally, mutations faintly affecting molecular properties (p.R206P, p.E252A, p.I253T, p.V266M, and p.D268N) correlate with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. These are the first studies that correlate the clinical symptoms with the molecular properties of the mutant enzymes. All findings indicate that the different clinical manifestations associated with PGK1 deficiency chiefly depend on the distinctive type of perturbations caused by mutations in the PGK1 gene, highlighting the need for determination of the molecular properties of PGK variants to assist in prognosis and genetic counseling. However, the clinical symptoms can not be understood only on the bases of molecular properties of the mutant enzyme. Different (environmental, metabolic, genetic and/or epigenetic) intervening factors can contribute toward the expression of PGK deficient clinical phenotypes.
Fundamental diagrams for kinetic equations of traffic flow
Luisa Fermo,Andrea Tosin
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.3934/dcdss.2014.7.449
Abstract: In this paper we investigate the ability of some recently introduced discrete kinetic models of vehicular traffic to catch, in their large time behavior, typical features of theoretical fundamental diagrams. Specifically, we address the so-called "spatially homogeneous problem" and, in the representative case of an exploratory model, we study the qualitative properties of its solutions for a generic number of discrete microstates. This includes, in particular, asymptotic trends and equilibria, whence fundamental diagrams originate.
A fully-discrete-state kinetic theory approach to traffic flow on road networks
Luisa Fermo,Andrea Tosin
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1142/S0218202515400023
Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to the modeling of vehicular traffic flows on road networks based on kinetic equations. While in the literature the problem has been extensively studied by means of macroscopic hydrodynamic models, to date there are still not, to the authors' knowledge, contributions tackling it from a genuine statistical mechanics point of view. Probably one of the reasons is the higher technical complexity of kinetic traffic models, further increased in case of several interconnected roads. Here such difficulties of the theory are overcome by taking advantage of a discrete structure of the space of microscopic states of the vehicles, which is also significant in view of including the intrinsic microscopic granularity of the system in the mesoscopic representation.
A fully-discrete-state kinetic theory approach to modeling vehicular traffic
Luisa Fermo,Andrea Tosin
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1137/120897110
Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical model of vehicular traffic, based on the methods of the generalized kinetic theory, in which the space of microscopic states (position and velocity) of the vehicles is genuinely discrete. While in the recent literature discrete-velocity kinetic models of car traffic have already been successfully proposed, this is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to account for all aspects of the physical granularity of car flow within the formalism of the aforesaid mathematical theory. Thanks to a rich but handy structure, the resulting model allows one to easily implement and simulate various realistic scenarios giving rise to characteristic traffic phenomena of practical interest (e.g., queue formation due to roadworks or to a traffic light). Moreover, it is analytically tractable under quite general assumptions, whereby fundamental properties of the solutions can be rigorously proved.
A Nystrom method for a boundary integral equation related to the Dirichlet problem on domains with corners
Luisa Fermo,Concetta Laurita
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00211-014-0657-6
Abstract: The authors consider the interior Dirichlet problem for Laplace's equation on planar domains with corners. In order to approximate the solution of the corresponding double layer boundary integral equation, they propose a numerical method of Nystrom type, based on a Lobatto quadrature rule.The convergence and stability of the method are proved and some numerical tests are included.
On the numerical solution of a boundary integral equation for the exterior Neumann problem on domains with corners
Luisa Fermo,Concetta Laurita
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.apnum.2015.03.010
Abstract: The authors propose a Nystrom method to approximate the solution of a boundary integral equation connected with the exterior Neumann problem for Laplace's equation on planar domains with corners. They prove the convergence and the stability of the method and show some numerical tests.
Plasma Citrulline: A New Marker of Gut Epithelium Alteration in Obese Patients?  [PDF]
Stefano Benedini, Isabella Fermo, Andrea Caumo, Ileana Terruzzi, Livio Luzi
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2015.54028
Abstract: Objectives: In the last decade gut microbial diversity was associated with the pathogenesis of obesity in humans. Plasma citrulline was a simple and accurate biomarker for the severity of intestinal failure and was associated with short bowel syndrome and alteration of gut permeability, being developed as an alternative to D-xylose tolerance test for the diagnosis of an abnormal small intestinal absorption of nutrients. This study was performed to ascertain whether obesity might be associated with dysregulation of epithelial gut function. Methods: Fifteen obese individuals (5 M/10 F; BMI 37.4 ± 6.1 Kg/m2; 42 ± 6 yrs) and 15 healthy gender- and age-matched controls (6 M/9 F BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 Kg/m2; 39 ± 7 yrs) underwent D-xylose load (25 g) and plasma citrulline, plasma insulin, glucose and lipid profile testing. Results: Plasma citrulline was significantly lower in the obese group (p = 0.045) with respect to controls, whilst total cholesterol, LDL and trygliceri- des concentration, insulin level and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in obese patients. In contrast, after D-xylose load no difference in serum xylose was found between the two groups (p = ns). Conclusions: Obese patients show a decreased citrulline concentration with respect to lean subjects. Since citrulline is a known marker of intestinal health, alterations in the gut epithelium are likely to be associated with the obesity syndrome. We propose to measure citrulline level in obese patients on a routine basis.
Lights and Shadows of Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
Francesco Patti,Salvatore Lo Fermo
Autoimmune Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/961702
Abstract: Cyclophosphamide (cy) is an alkylating agent used to treat malignancies and immune-mediated inflammatory nonmalignant processes. It has been used as a treatment in cases of worsening multiple sclerosis (MS). Cy is currently used for patients whose disease is not controlled by beta-interferon or glatiramer acetate as well as those with rapidly worsening MS. The most commonly used regimens involve outpatient IV pulse therapy given with or without corticosteroids every 4 to 8 weeks. Side effects include nausea, headache, alopecia, pain, male and women infertility, bladder toxicity, and risk of malignancy. Previous studies suggest that cy is effective in patients in the earlier stages of disease, where inflammation predominates over degenerative processes. Given that early inflammatory events appear to correlate with later disability, a major question is whether strong anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cy, will have an impact on later degenerative changes if given early in the disease to halt inflammation. 1. Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired inflammatory immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and primary or secondary axonal degeneration. It clinically manifests with signs of multiple neurological dysfunctions, followed by recovery or increasing disability. Cyclophosphamide (cy) (the generic name for Endoxan, Cytoxan, Neosar, Procytox, and Revimmune), also known as cytophosphane, is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent from the oxazophorine group (Figure 1). An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n + 1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. This leads to the synthesis of aberrant couples of cytosin-tymine. The DNA reparation system of the cells removes the modified guanine, triggering cell apoptosis. Cy is converted by mixed function oxidase enzymes in the liver to active metabolites. The main active metabolite is 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which exists in equilibrium with its tautomer, aldophosphamide. Most of the aldophosphamide is oxidised by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to make carboxyphosphamide. The intracellular level of this enzyme has been shown to be directly related to cellular resistance to activated cy and is believed to be important in the survival of cells capable of repopulating marrow in autologous bone marrow transplant procedures [1]. Both hematopoietic progenitors and intestinal crypt stem cells display high levels of cytosolic ALDH and are accordingly relatively
The Employment of Young Graduates in the Period 2000-2010: A Comparison between Six European Countries  [PDF]
Paola Potestio
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25099
Abstract: The paper aims to assess the relative importance of participation and unemployment and the interaction between them in affecting the evolution of employment rates of young graduates in selected European countries. The Taylor formula is used to read the behaviour of employment rates in terms of movements in activity and unemployment rates. Using this analytical procedure, the comparison between the selected countries underscores two aspects in particular: the progressive isolation of Italy, due to the poor results of the reform of the higher education system at the end of the 1990s, and the widespread progress within the female segments. On a more general plane, the heterogeneity of European labour markets for young graduates assumes new characteristics in the decade but—it is argued—it remains significant. The relative importance of participation and unemployment, the impact of the reforms of the higher education system, the reaction to the crisis of the late 2000s, and the gender aspects sharply differentiate the evolution of young graduate employment in the individual countries.
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