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Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Hingot): A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties
Yadav J,Panghal Manju
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca is an evergreen, woody, true xerophytic tree of tremendous medicinal importance. It belongs to the family Balanitaceae and is distributed throughout the drier parts of India. B. aegyptiaca has been used in a variety of folk medicines in India and Asia. Various parts of the plant are used in Ayurvedic and other folk medicines for the treatment of different ailments such as syphilis, jaundice, liver and spleen problems, epilepsy, yellow fever and the plant also has insecticidal, antihelminthic, antifeedant, molluscicidal and contraceptive activities. Research has been carried out using different in vitro and in vivo techniques of biological evaluation to support most of these claims. This review presents the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of this medicinal plant.
In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases
Manju Panghal, Vivek Kaushal, Jaya P Yadav
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-10-21
Abstract: Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University,Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method.Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T. foenum graecum) showed significant antimicrobial activity (P < .05) against most of the isolates. The MIC and MFC values were ranged from 31 to 500 μg/ml. P. aeruginosa was observed highest susceptible bacteria (46.6%) on the basis of susceptible index.It can be concluded that treated oral cancer patients were neutropenic and prone to secondary infection of microbes. The medicinal plant can prove as effective antimicrobial agent to check the secondary infections in treated cancer patients.Over the past decade, advances in the cancer treatment field have been counterbalanced by a rising number of immu
Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India
Manju Panghal, Vedpriya Arya, Sanjay Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Jaya Yadav
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-6-4
Abstract: Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun.The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae.This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community.Utilization of plants for medicinal purposes in India has been documented long back in ancient literature because they are essential to human survival [1,2]. The consumption, management and valuation of wild plants are central aspects of the traditional knowledge in many human populations. Thus, plants gathering, the diffusion and conservation of knowledge within the community are traditional practices that have contribution to the subsis
Incidence and risk factors for infection in oral cancer patients undergoing different treatments protocols
Panghal Manju,Kaushal Vivek,Kadayan Sangeeta,Yadav Jaya
BMC Oral Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-12-22
Abstract: Background Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatments have been counterbalanced by a rising number of immunosuppressed patients with a multitude of new risk factors for infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine risk factors, infectious pathogens in blood and oral cavity of oral cancer patients undergoing different treatment procedures. Methods The present prospective cohort analysis was conducted on the patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D. Sharma University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, during the period of January 2007 to October 2009. Total 186 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity were analyzed in the study. Based on treatment procedures patients were divided into three groups, group I were under radiotherapy, group II under chemotherapy and group III were of radio chemotherapy together. Clinical isolates from blood and oral cavity were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus. The predominant gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated from blood of radiotherapy and oral cavity of chemotherapy treated cases respectively. The predominance of gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were observed in blood of chemotherapy, radio chemotherapy cases and oral cavity of radiotherapy, radio chemotherapy treated cases. Our study also revealed the presence of C. albicans fungi as most significant oral cavity pathogens in radiotherapy and radio chemotherapy cases. Conclusion Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative were reported from the blood of all the three groups of patients. Oral mucositis played a significant role in oral cavity infection and make patients more prone to C. albicans infection.
Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  [PDF]
Manju Sharma
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31009
Abstract: In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic), VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.
Performance Tradeoff with Routing Protocols for Radio Models in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Manju Bala, Lalit Awasthi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.22008
Abstract: In this paper, we have simulated and evaluated the performance tradeoff with routing protocols: Constrained Flooding, the Real-Time Search and the Adaptive Tree on MICA and MICAz platform with different radio models using PROWLER for wireless sensor networks. The simulation results establish that the MICAz motes give low latency, high throughput, high energy consumption, low efficiency but better lifetime while the MICA motes give high success rate and less loss rate. It has been, thus, concluded that in case of all the radio models the MICAz is preferably better than MICA in applications where energy is a constraint. Moreover, use of MICAz motes increases the network lifetime in comparison to MICA for the radio models. Further, the AT protocol can be applied to achieve better energy consumption, efficiency and lifetime in real time for wireless sensor networks.
Assessment of Methane Flux from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Areas of Delhi, India  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL Ramanathan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24045
Abstract: Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are the major Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s), which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. Therefore, there is immense concern for its abatement or utilization from landfill areas. Compared to the west, the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHG’s from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfills areas in India are not planned or en- gineered generally low lying open areas, where MSW is indiscriminate disposed. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. Due to scarcity of land in big cities, mu- nicipal authorities are using same landfill for nearly 10 - 20 years. Hence, the possibility of anaerobic emission of GHG’s further increases. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from three MSW landfill areas of Delhi i.e., Gazipur, Bhalswa and Okhla. The results showed that the range of methane emission various in winter from 12.94 to 58.41 and in Summer from 82.69 - 293 mg/m2/h in these landfill areas. The paper has also reviewed the literature on methane emission from India and the status of landfill areas in India.
Design of Sharp 2D Multiplier-Less Circularly Symmetric FIR Filter Using Harmony Search Algorithm and Frequency Transformation  [PDF]
Manju Manuel, Elizabeth Elias
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33044
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel and efficient method for the design of a sharp, two dimensional (2D) wideband, circularly symmetric, FIR filter. First of all, a sharp one dimensional (1D) infinite precision FIR filter is designed using the Frequency Response Masking (FRM) technique. This filter is converted into a multiplier-less filter by representing it in the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) space. The design of the FRM filter in the CSD space calls for the use of a discrete optimization technique. To this end, a new optimization approach is proposed using a modified Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). HSA is modified in such a way that, in every exploitation and exploration phase, the candidate solutions turns out to be integers. The 1D FRM multiplier-less filter, is in turn transformed to the 2D equivalent using the recently proposed multiplier-less transformations namely, T1 and T2. These transformations are successful in generating circular contours even for wideband filters. Since multipliers are the most power consuming elements in a 2D filter, the multiplier-less realization calls for reduced power consumption as well as computation time. Significant reduction in the computational complexity and computation time are the highlights of our proposed design technique. Besides, the proposed discrete optimization using modified HSA can be used to solve optimization problems in other engineering disciplines, where the search space consists of integers.
Conservation of Forestry Biomass with the Use of Alternative Resource  [PDF]
Manju Agarwal, Rachana Pathak
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.54009
Abstract: The effect of the alternative resource and time delay on conservation of forestry biomass is studied by considering a nonlinear mathematical model. In this paper, interaction between forestry biomass, industrialization pressure, toxicant pressure and technological effort is proposed and analysed. We find out the critical value of delay and observe that there is Hopf bifurcation. Using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem, we determine the stability and direction of the bifurcating periodic solutions. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results.
Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Tumor Therapy with Oncolytic Virus  [PDF]
Manju Agarwal, Archana S. Bhadauria
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.21015
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed and analyzed a nonlinear mathematical model for the study of interaction between tumor cells and oncolytic viruses. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equa- tions. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed by using fourth order Runge- Kutta method which supports the theoretical findings. It is found that both infected and uninfected tumor cells and hence tumor load can be eliminated with time, and complete recovery is possible because of virus therapy, if certain conditions are satisfied. It is further found that the system appears to exhibit periodic limit cycles and chaotic attractors for some ranges of the system parameters.
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