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Development and investigation of gastro retentive dosage form of weakly basic drug
Shah Samip,Pandya Shridhar,Waghulade Mahesh
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The release of drug substance from controlled-release dosage forms is often pH-dependent since most drugs are either weak acids or weak bases. A system that permits the drug release to be changed freely while maintaining pH-independent drug release (model drug was Domperidone) was developed. Powder mixture of drug and HPMC K4M, eudragit L100, sodium bicarbonate (as gas-generating agent) and other excipients were mixed and directly compressed using single-punch tablet compression machine. It was found that sodium bicarbonate reacts with HCl and produce carbon dioxide which creates pores in tablet and elevates swelling by wetting the polymer. So it helps in maintaining the buoyancy. The release rate could be modified by varying the polymer ratio. The prepared tablets were evaluated for general appearance, content uniformity, hardness, friability, buoyancy, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The best formulation (D 1 ) was selected based on in vitro characteristics and was used in vivo radiographic studies by incorporating BaSO 4 . These studies revealed that the tablets remained in the stomach for 250±30 min in fasted rabbits and indicated that gastric retention time was increased by the floating principle, which was considered desirable for the absorption window drugs. The linear regression analysis and model fitting showed that all these formulations followed Higuchi model, which had a higher value of correlation coefficient (r). The scanning electron microscopy images of the tablet (D 1 formulation) were taken before and after dissolution and images showed that the drug was released from matrix by diffusion mechanism. Stability studies of all formulations were carried out at elevated temperature and humidity conditions of 40±2 o C/75±5% RH and a control sample was placed at an ambient condition for 12 months. It was found that there was no significant change in buoyancy property as well as in drug content from initial drug content of all the formulations at the end of 12 months, indicating that the formulations are stable.
Control chart : A statistical process control tool in pharmacy
Shah Samip,Shridhar Pandya,Gohil Dipti
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Control chart is the most successful statistical process control (SPC) tool, originally developed by Walter Shewhart in the early 1920s. A control chart can easily collect, organize and store information, calculate answers and present results in easy to understand graphs. It helps to record data and allows to see when an unusual event, e.g., a very high or low observation compared with "typical" process performance, occurs. Computers accept information typed in manually, read from scanners or manufacturing machines, or imported from other computer databases. The resulting control charts can be examined in greater detail, incorporated into reports, or sent across the internet. A stable process is a basic requirement for process improvement efforts. A computer collecting information in real time can even detect very slight changes in a process, and even warn you in time to prevent process errors before they occur. First, control charts demonstrate how consistently process is performing, and whether you should, or should not, attempt to adjust it. Next, the statistical process control chart compares the process performance to standard pharmaceutical requirements, providing a process capability index as an ongoing, accurate direction for quality improvement. Finally, control charts and its resulting process capability index quickly evaluate the results of quality initiatives designed to improve process consistency. This review focuses on elements of control chart and types of various control charts along with example. Advantages of various control charts are also included.
An Attractive Biocompatible Polymer for pharmaceutical application in various dosage forms – Chitosan
Shridhar pandya,D. Harinarayana,Devendra Jain,Shital J Bidkar
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Chitosan comes from chitin a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitin is similar to cellulose in morphology; a bountiful natural polysaccharide that contains amino sugars.Partial deacetylation of chitin gives rise to chitosan, a linear polysaccharide with interspersed D-glucosamine, and acetyl-D-glucosamine units. The preponderance and distribution of acetyl-D-glucosamine residues lead to differing physicochemical properties and biological responses. Chitosan is a weak cationic polysaccharide composed essentially of β(1→4) linked glucosamine units together with some N-acetylglucosamine units. It is obtained by extensive deacetylation of chitin, a polysaccharide common in nature. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer that exhibits excellent film-forming ability. As a result of its cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Therefore, because of these interesting properties, it has become the subject of numerous scientific reports and patents on the preparation of microspheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include, among others, ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation, and polymerization of a vinyl monomer in the presence of chitosan. The aim of this work is to review is for a taste masking by various methods.
Compatible Polymer used as complexes in various drug delivery systems : β-Cyclodextrin
Shridhar J Pandya,Miss Jasmine.S mansuri,Mr pinal patel
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: β–CyclodextrinCyclodextrins are crystalline, cyclic oligosaccharides derived from starch. Among the most commonly used forms are α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin, which have respectively 6, 7, and 8 glucose units. Empirical Formula: β-Cyclodextrin: C42H70O35 Molecular Weight: 1135 Functional Category: Solubilizing agent; stabilizing agent. Physical charactrization: Appearance - White Fine crystalline powder. Odour - Odourless. Taste - Slightly sweet taste.
Statestically Optimization Of Drug Formulation Using Factorial Design
Shridhar Jitubhai Pandya,Patel Hardik kamleshkumar,Joshi Darshan Ashivinkumar,Bhavsar Hardi Nileshbhai
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: The optimization of pharmaceutical formulations with regard to one or more attributes has always been a subject of importance and attention for pharmaceutical scientists in formulation research. The word optimized simply implies to make as perfect, effective or functional as possible. Hence, optimization of a product or process is the determination of the experimental conditions resulting in its optimal performance. Objective The term objective has been used to indicate either the property of interest (also called as criterion) or the goal of an optimization experiment. The term criterion has also been used in isolated cases to indicate a measure of the realization of a target value of the objective, expressed as a single value or range of values.
Various Polymer Use In Pharmaceutical Application And Polymer Coating
Shridhar J Pandya,Amit Patel,Golakiya Nikul. V,Dixit K. Shah
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Tablets are by far the most popular dosage form when administering drugs to patients, and a large proportion of the tablets produced around the world are film coated. With the current awareness of health, safety and environmental problems, film coating is a process that is routinely employed in the preparation of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms.The success of coating process is determined by three factors: formulation of the coating system, coating process parameters and tablet core. During the last 20 years, there has been significant research into coating formulations and processes.It has been used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry, e.g. for the application of non-functional or functional coats (aesthetic, protective or rate controlling polymer films) and for the deposition of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) onto nonpareils (multi-particulate dosage forms).An accurate method of coating objects 3 to 30 mm in length with APIs is also desired in the pharmaceutical industry as this is the size range of most single-unit solid dosage forms. These include tablets for oral administration and forms for other methods of delivery including human implantation.Existing methods of coating objects in this size range have limitations, e.g. in terms of coating speed and accuracy / uniformity, particularly for the deposition of low dose API onto single unit tablet dosage forms which requires a greater degree of accuracy than can be achieved using current tablet coating techniques1.A novel method of coating small objects has been developed that has demonstrated the ability to uniformly coat inert objects of sizes between 3 and 30 mm in length with a high degree of accuracy. Using the coating method, Relative Standard Deviations (RSDs) below 2% have been achieved for total coating contents as low as 200 micrograms per object. However, it is unknown how accurately the deposition will be on conventional pharmaceutical tablets (which have a higher degree of friability and more irregular surface compared to the inert objects used).
General Topology of the Universe  [PDF]
Aalok Pandya
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.516235
Abstract:

General topology of the universe is described. It is concluded that topology of the present universe is greater or stronger than the topology of the universe in the past and topology of the future universe will be stronger or greater than the present topology of the universe. Consequently, the universe remains unbounded. The general topological approach comprises of powerful techniques that could prove to be useful to prescribe mathematical constraints on the global character of the universe as well as on the manifold of space-time.

Bayes Estimation of Change Point in Discrete Maxwell Distribution
Mayuri Pandya,Hardik Pandya
International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/395034
Abstract: A sequence of independent lifetimes 1,…,,
A Comprehensive Evaluation of PAN-Sharpening Algorithms Coupled with Resampling Methods for Image Synthesis of Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Satellite Data  [PDF]
Shridhar D. Jawak, Alvarinho J. Luis
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.24036
Abstract:

The merging of a panchromatic (PAN) image with a multispectral satellite image (MSI) to increase the spatial resolution of the MSI, while simultaneously preserving its spectral information is classically referred as PAN-sharpening. We employed a recent dataset derived from very high resolution of WorldView-2 satellite (PAN and MSI) for two test sites (one over an urban area and the other over Antarctica), to comprehensively evaluate the performance of six existing PAN-sharpening algorithms. The algorithms under consideration were the Gram-Schmidt (GS), Ehlers fusion (EF), modified hue-intensity-saturation (Mod-HIS), high pass filtering (HPF), the Brovey transform (BT), and wavelet-based principal component analysis (W-PC). Quality assessment of the sharpened images was carried out by using 20 quality indices. We also analyzed the performance of nearest neighbour (NN), bilinear interpolation (BI), and cubic convolution (CC) resampling methods to test their practicability in the PAN-sharpening process. Our results indicate that the comprehensive performance of PAN-sharpening methods decreased in the following order: GS > W-PC > EF > HPF > Mod-HIS > BT, while resampling methods followed the order: NN > BI > CC.

iPhone Security Analysis  [PDF]
Vaibhav Ranchhoddas Pandya, Mark Stamp
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2010.12009
Abstract: The release of Apple’s iPhone was one of the most intensively publicized product releases in the history of mobile devices. While the iPhone wowed users with its exciting design and features, it also angered many for not allowing installation of third party applications and for working exclusively with AT & T wireless services (in the US). Besides the US, iPhone was only sold only in a few other selected countries. Software attacks were developed to overcome both limitations. The development of those attacks and further evaluation revealed several vulnerabilities in iPhone security. In this paper, we examine some of the attacks developed for the iPhone as a way of investigating the iPhone’s security structure. We also analyze the security holes that have been discovered and make suggestions for improving iPhone security.
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