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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 176 matches for " Panayiotis Mavroidis "
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Dosimetric Comparison of Craniospinal Axis Irradiation (CSI) Treatments Using Helical Tomotherapy, SmartarcTM, and 3D Conventional Radiation Therapy  [PDF]
Pamela Myers, Sotirios Stathakis, Alonso N. Gutiérrez, Carlos Esquivel, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Niko Papanikolaou
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.21005
Purpose: Craniospinal axis irradiation (CSI) is a method of treating various central nervous system malignancies. The large target volume typically includes entire spinal cord and whole brain. Dosimetric comparison was performed between tomotherapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for CSI. Methods and Materials: Five (n = 5) CSI patients were planned using 3D-CRT, VMAT, and tomotherapy (normalized such that 95% of PTV received at least 23.4 Gy in 13 fractions). Plans were compared using PTV conformity number (CN) and homogeneity index (HI), normal tissue (NT) dose statistics, integral dose, and treatment time. Results: On average, tomotherapy plans showed higher CN (0.932 vs. 0.860 and 0.672 for SmartArc and 3D-CRT). In terms of HI, VMAT plans consistently showed better dose homogeneity (1.07 vs. 1.15 and 1.13 for tomotherapy and 3D-CRT). SmartArc delivered lower maximum dose for majority of NT, but higher mean dose. 3D-CRT plans delivered higher maximum dose but lower mean dose to NT. Conclusions: SmartArc treatments achieved better PTV homogeneity and reduced maximum dose to NT. Tomotherapy showed better target conformity, but 3D-CRT was shown to reduce mean dose to NT. Integral doses were similar between treatment modalities, but tomotherapy treatment times were much longer.
Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using the Acuros XB Dose Calculation Algorithm within and beyond Heterogeneous Media for 6 MV Photon Beams  [PDF]
Sotirios Stathakis, Carlos Esquivel, Luis Vazquez Quino, Pamela Myers, Oscar Calvo, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Alonso N. Gutiérrez, Niko Papanikolaou
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2012.13011
Abstract: Purpose: The dosimetric accuracy of the recently released Acuros XB advanced dose calculation algorithm (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) is investigated for single radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries, as well as for two arc (VMAT) cases and compared against the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), the collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm (CCCS) and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations for the same geometries. Methods and Materials: Small open fields ranging from 1 × 1 cm2 to 5 × 5 cm2 were used for part of this study. The fields were incident on phantoms containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB, AAA and CCCS in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc calculations that were considered as the benchmark. Furthermore, two clinical cases of arc deliveries were used to test the accuracy of the dose calculation algorithms against MC. Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement between all dose calculation algorithms and MC. The dose agreement was +/?1.5% for all field sizes and energies. Dose calculation in heterogenous phantoms showed that the agreement between Acuros XB and CCCS was within 2% in the case of lung and bone. AAA calculations showed deviation of approximately 5%. In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for all calculations algorithms. The calculation in the patient CT for a lung and bone (paraspinal targets) showed that all dose calculation algorithms predicted the dose in the middle of the target accurately; however, small differences (2% - 5%) were observed at the low dose region. Overall, when compared to MC, the Acuros XB and CCCS had better agreement than AAA. Conclusions: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the newest version of the Eclipse treatment planning system is an improvement over the existing AAA algorithm. The results are comparable to CCCS and MC calculations especially for both stylized and clinical cases. Dose discrepancies were observed for extreme cases in the presence of air inhomogeneities.
Radiobiologically based treatment plan evaluation for prostate seed implants
Courtney Knaup,Panayiotis Mavroidis,Carlos Esquivel,Dimos Baltas
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: Accurate prostate low dose-rate brachytherapy treatment plan evaluation is important for future care decisions. Presently, an evaluation is based on dosimetric quantifiers for the tumor and organs at risk. However, these do not account for effects of varying dose-rate, tumor repopulation and other biological effects. In this work, incorporation of the biological response is used to obtain more clinically relevant treatment plan evaluation.Material and methods: Eleven patients were evaluated. Each patient received a 145 Gy implant. Iodine-125 seeds were used and the treatment plans were created on the Prowess system. Based on CT images the post-implant plan was created. In the post-plan, the tumor, urethra, bladder and rectum were contoured. The biologically effective dose was used to determine the tumor control probability and the normal tissue complication probabilities for the urethra, bladder, rectum and surrounding tissue. Results: The average tumor control probability and complication probabilities for the urethra, bladder, rectum and surrounding tissue were 99%, 29%, 0%, 12% and 6%, respectively. These measures provide a simpler means for evaluation and since they include radiobiological factors, they provide more reliable estimation of the treatment outcome. Conclusions: The goal of this work was to create more clinically relevant prostate seed-implant evaluation by incorporating radiobiological measures. This resulted in a simpler descriptor of treatment plan quality and was consistent with patient outcomes.
Evaluation of the effect of prostate volume change on tumor control probability in LDR brachytherapy
Courtney Knaup,Panayiotis Mavroidis,Sotirios Stathakis,Mark Smith
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: This study evaluates low dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR) prostate plans to determine the biological effectof dose degradation due to prostate volume changes. Material and methods: In this study, 39 patients were evaluated. Pre-implant prostate volume was determinedusing ultrasound. These images were used with the treatment planning system (Nucletron Spot Pro 3.1 ) to create treatmentplans using 103Pd seeds. Following the implant, patients were imaged using CT for post-implant dosimetry. Fromthe pre and post-implant DVHs, the biologically equivalent dose and the tumor control probability (TCP) were determinedusing the biologically effective uniform dose. The model used RBE = 1.75 and α/β = 2 Gy. Results: The prostate volume changed between pre and post implant image sets ranged from –8% to 110%. TCP andthe mean dose were reduced up to 21% and 56%, respectively. TCP is observed to decrease as the mean dose decreasesto the prostate. The post-implant tumor dose was generally observed to decrease, compared to the planned dose.A critical uniform dose of 130 Gy was established. Below this dose, TCP begins to fall-off. It was also determined thatpatients with a small prostates were more likely to suffer TCP decrease. Conclusions: The biological effect of post operative prostate growth due to operative trauma in LDR was evaluatedusing the concept. The post-implant dose was lower than the planned dose due to an increase of prostate volumepost-implant. A critical uniform dose of 130 Gy was determined, below which TCP begun to decline.
Radiobiological evaluation of the influence of dwell time modulation restriction in HIPO optimized HDR prostate brachytherapy implants
Panayiotis Mavroidis,Zaira Katsilieri,Vasiliki Kefala,Natasa Milickovic
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: One of the issues that a planner is often facing in HDR brachytherapy is the selective existence of high dose volumes around some few dominating dwell positions. If there is no information available about its necessity (e.g. location of a GTV), then it is reasonable to investigate whether this can be avoided. This effect can be eliminated by limiting the free modulation of the dwell times. HIPO, an inverse treatment plan optimization algorithm, offers this option.In treatment plan optimization there are various methods that try to regularize the variation of dose non-uniformity using purely dosimetric measures. However, although these methods can help in finding a good dose distribution they do not provide any information regarding the expected treatment outcome as described by radiobiology based indices.Material and methods: The quality of 12 clinical HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate utilizing HIPO and modulation restriction (MR) has been compared to alternative plans with HIPO and free modulation (without MR).All common dose-volume indices for the prostate and the organs at risk have been considered together with radiobiological measures. The clinical effectiveness of the different dose distributions was investigated by calculating the response probabilities of the tumors and organs-at-risk (OARs) involved in these prostate cancer cases. The radiobiological models used are the Poisson and the relative seriality models. Furthermore, the complication-free tumor control probability, P+ and the biologically effective uniform dose (D = ) were used for treatment plan evaluation and comparison.Results: Our results demonstrate that HIPO with a modulation restriction value of 0.1-0.2 delivers high quality plans which are practically equivalent to those achieved with free modulation regarding the clinically used dosimetric indices.In the comparison, many of the dosimetric and radiobiological indices showed significantly different results. The modulation restricted clinical plans demonstrated a lower total dwell time by a mean of 1.4% that was proved to be statistically significant (p = 0.002). The HIPO with MR treatment plans produced a higher P+ by 0.5%, which stemmed from a better sparing of the OARs by 1.0%.Conclusions: Both the dosimetric and radiobiological comparison shows that the modulation restricted optimization gives on average similar results with the optimization without modulation restriction in the examined clinical cases. Concluding, based on our results, it appears that the applied dwell time regularization technique is expected
Comparison of Dose Response Models for Predicting Normal Tissue Complications from Cancer Radiotherapy: Application in Rat Spinal Cord
Magdalena Adamus-Górka,Panayiotis Mavroidis,Bengt K. Lind,Anders Brahme
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3022421
Abstract: Seven different radiobiological dose-response models have been compared with regard to their ability to describe experimental data. The first four models, namely the critical volume, the relative seriality, the inverse tumor and the critical element models are mainly based on cell survival biology. The other three models: the Lyman (Gaussian distribution), the parallel architecture and the Weibull distribution models are semi-empirical and rather based on statistical distributions. The maximum likelihood estimation was used to fit the models to experimental data and the χ 2-distribution, AIC criterion and F-test were applied to compare the goodness-of-fit of the models. The comparison was performed using experimental data for rat spinal cord injury. Both the shape of the dose-response curve and the ability of handling the volume dependence were separately compared for each model. All the models were found to be acceptable in describing the present experimental dataset (p > 0.05). For the white matter necrosis dataset, the Weibull and Lyman models were clearly superior to the other models, whereas for the vascular damage case, the Relative Seriality model seems to have the best performance although the Critical volume, Inverse tumor, Critical element and Parallel architecture models gave similar results. Although the differences between many of the investigated models are rather small, they still may be of importance in indicating the advantages and limitations of each particular model. It appears that most of the models have favorable properties for describing dose-response data, which indicates that they may be suitable to be used in biologically optimized intensity modulated radiation therapy planning, provided a proper estimation of their radiobiological parameters had been performed for every tissue and clinical endpoint.
Radiobiological evaluation of forward and inverse IMRT using different fractionations for head and neck tumours
Brigida C Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Lopes, Josefina Mateus, Miguel Capela, Panayiotis Mavroidis
Radiation Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1748-717x-5-57
Abstract: Seven patients with head and neck tumours were selected for this retrospective planning study. The PTV1 included the primary tumour, PTV2 the high risk lymph nodes and PTV3 the low risk lymph nodes. Except for the conventional technique where a maximum dose of 64.8 Gy was prescribed to the PTV1, 70.2 Gy, 59.4 Gy and 50.4 Gy were prescribed respectively to PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3. Except for IMRT2, all techniques were delivered by three sequential phases. The IFP technique used five to seven directions with a total of 15 to 21 beams. The IMRT techniques used five to nine directions and around 80 segments. The first, IMRT1, was prescribed with the conventional fractionation scheme of 1.8 Gy per fraction delivered in 39 fractions by three treatment phases. The second, IMRT2, simultaneously irradiated the PTV2 and PTV3 with 59.4 Gy and 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, respectively, while the PTV1 was boosted with six subsequent fractions of 1.8 Gy. Tissue response was calculated using the relative seriality model and the Poisson Linear-Quadratic-Time model to simulate repopulation in the primary tumour.The average probability of total tumour control increased from 38% with CONVT to 80% with IFP, to 85% with IMRT1 and 89% with IMRT2. The shorter treatment time and larger dose per fraction obtained with IMRT2 resulted in an 11% increase in the probability of control in the PTV1 with respect to IFP and 7% relatively to IMRT1 (p < 0.05). The average probability of total patient complications was reduced from 80% with CONVT to 61% with IFP and 31% with IMRT. The corresponding probability of complications in the ipsilateral parotid was 63%, 42% and 20%; in the contralateral parotid it was 50%, 20% and 9%; in the oral cavity it was 2%, 15% and 4% and in the mandible it was 1%, 5% and 3%, respectively.A significant improvement in treatment outcome was obtained with IMRT compared to conventional radiation therapy. The practical and biological advantages of IMRT2, employing a shorter treatme
Properties of the function
Panayiotis Vlamos
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171201005725
Abstract: We obtain the asymptotic estimations for ∑k=2nf(k) and ∑k=2n1/f(k), where f(k)=k/π(k), k≥2. We study the expression 2f(x
Sequences and series involving the sequence of composite numbers
Panayiotis Vlamos
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s016117120201284x
Abstract: Denoting by pn and cn the nth prime number and the nth composite number, respectively, we prove that both the sequence (xn)n≥1, defined by xn=∑k=1n (ck
Invited Comments
Varelas Panayiotis
Neurology India , 2005,
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