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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 161 matches for " Panayiota Constantinou "
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A Formal Treatment of Sequential Ignorability
A. Philip Dawid,Panayiota Constantinou
Statistics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s12561-014-9110-8
Abstract: Taking a rigorous formal approach, we consider sequential decision problems involving observable variables, unobservable variables, and action variables. We can typically assume the property of extended stability, which allows identification (by means of G-computation) of the consequence of a specified treatment strategy if the unobserved variables are, in fact, observed - but not generally otherwise. However, under certain additional special conditions we can infer simple stability (or sequential ignorability), which supports G-computation based on the observed variables alone. One such additional condition is sequential randomization, where the unobserved variables essentially behave as random noise in their effects on the actions. Another is sequential irrelevance, where the unobserved variables do not influence future observed variables. In the latter case, to deduce sequential ignorability in full generality requires additional positivity conditions. We show here that these positivity conditions are not required when all variables are discrete.
Extended Conditional Independence and Applications in Causal Inference
Panayiota Constantinou,A. Philip Dawid
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to integrate the notions of stochastic conditional independence and variation conditional independence under a more general notion of extended conditional independence. We show that under appropriate assumptions the calculus that applies for the two cases separately (axioms of a separoid) still applies for the extended case. These results provide a rigorous basis for a wide range of statistical concepts, including ancillarity and sufficiency, and, in particular, the Decision Theoretic framework for statistical causality, which uses the language and calculus of conditional independence in order to express causal properties and make causal inferences.
Children’s Judgments and Feelings about Their Own Drawings  [PDF]
Fotini Bonoti, Panayiota Metallidou
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.15042
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible age differences in drawing performance of preschool and primary school children, as well as in metacognitive experiences that are activated before and after the drawing process. The study is comprised of 222 children of both genders, aged from 4 to 12. They were tested individually in their schools. They were asked to produce four drawings, which vary on their level of complexity, and to rate before each drawing on a four-point scale the frequency of drawing similar themes and their feeling of difficulty. After the drawing they were asked to estimate again the difficulty they felt as well as the feeling of liking the drawing they produced and the correctness of the drawing. The results of a series of analyses of variance confirmed the expected improvement of drawing performance with age. There wasn’t found, however, the same developmental course in the case of metacognitive experiences. On the contrary, there was found a significant decrease in the feeling of liking and the estimation of correctness of the drawings, especially after the second grade.
Pelvic Floor Function in the Female  [PDF]
Christos E. Constantinou
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.414115
Abstract: Pelvic Floor (PF) disorders, such as urinary incontinence and prolapse accounted for over 400,000 operations in the USA in 1987 [1], and nearly a third of these were re-operations. It is estimated that 30% - 50% of women in Europe and the USA are affected by Urinary incontinence [2]. Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI), the involuntary leakage of urine on coughing, sneezing, exertion or effort, is the most common form of urinary incontinence in women. The scientific understanding of normal PF function is limited and consequently treatment of these prevalent, disabling conditions is, at best, inefficient.
Reconceptualising ‘Time’ and ‘Space’ in the Era of Electronic Media and Communications
Panayiota Tsatsou
PLATFORM : Journal of Media and Communication , 2009,
Abstract: This paper examines to what extent electronic media and communications have contributed to currently changing concepts of time and space and how crucial their role is in experiencing temporality, spatiality and mobility. The paper argues that media and communication technologies play a complex part in shifting conceptions of time and space, without diminishing to insignificance the concepts of time and space or subjective experiences of them. On the contrary, by challenging established conceptual approaches to time and space, electronic media could be considered to 'mediate' time and space, problematising the multi-layered significance of how they are experienced today. The paper is divided into three sections. First, it presents theoretical approaches to time and space, and it discusses the two seemingly contrasting approaches of 'time-space distanciation' and 'time-space compression'. Second, it develops a historical analysis of the ways in which media have empirically modified the concepts of time and space, and it discusses the examples of 'internet time' and new 'electronic spaces' to challenge the argument of temporal simultaneity and non-significance of space in the new digital era, respectively. Viewing the historical changes of space in particular as intimately linked to the shifting conceptualisation of place, the third section examines the emergence of a perception of place as 'non-place', whilst it argues in favour of the counterthesis of a mediated sense of place. In this regard, the paper espouses the thesis that electronic communications have succeeded in interconnecting remote places without eliminating their importance.
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Treatment Requires a Multidisciplinary Approach  [PDF]
Chloe Constantinou, Ian S. Fentiman
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.47140

Correct diagnosis and treatment are crucial for DCIS because it is a direct precursor of potentially lethal invasive breast cancer (IBC). As a result of mammographic screening, the incidence of DCIS rose from 1.87% per 100,000 women from 1973-1975 to 32.5% per 100,000 in 2005. The incidence of DCIS is strongly associated with advanced age, an older age at the time of the first birth or nulliparity, family history of a first-degree relative with BC, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, history of biopsy, late age at menopause, and elevated body mass index, the use of HRT over 5 years. With the use of screening mammography, eight population-based trials showed an increase in DCIS incidence reaching 20% with significant reductions in breast cancer mortality. MRI is also used in combination with the mammography for the diagnosis of DCIS. Three grades of DCIS are ultimately recognized: grade 1/low grade, grade 2/intermediate grade, and grade 3/high grade. Several options are available for the management of DCIS, including breast-conserving surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy, and with the clear margin being the most important factor for reducing risk of local recurrence. A 2 mm margin is superior to <2 mm, but there was no significant difference in relapse rate in those with margins of 2 or 5 mm when combined with radiotherapy. The use of mastectomy for treatment of DCIS has declined steadily. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) should be performed on patients undergoing mastectomy for DCIS, and a case-by-case decision should be made to perform SLNB in patients who have a high risk DCIS or large tumours. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated excellent long-term results after BCS and radiotherapy, as opposed to BCS alone that has shown a higher rate of local recurrence. Tamoxifen also reduces ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer events in women with DCIS and is the only systemic therapy approved by Food Drug Administration for this disease. Aromatase inhibitors and other targeted therapies are currently being evaluated in ongoing studies.

Exercise-induced asthma
D Constantinou
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Medical considerations in the female football player
D Constantinou
Continuing Medical Education , 2010,
Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention
D Constantinou
Continuing Medical Education , 2010,
Is blood transfusion therapy the ideal treatment for -thalassemia intermedia?
Katerina Constantinou
Open Journal of Hematology , 2012,
Abstract: The thalassemias represent the most common single gene disorder worldwide. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals with β-thalassemia is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world [1] of which nearly 10% have β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) [2]. Several approaches have been used for treating patients with TI including blood transfusions, splenectomy, iron chelation therapy, modulation of foetal haemoglobin and other agents focusing on specific aspects of clinical presentation. However the exact management of the disease is still controversial. A major issue which is not entirely explored is the effect of blood transfusion in the management of patients with β-thalassemia intermedia. There are certain advantages and disadvantages of initiating blood transfusions in TI patients that must be always taken into account in the management of these patients. Therefore, complications that interact with the clinical outcome of treatment and also patient’s quality of life can be avoided to some extend.References:Galanello R, Origa R. Beta-thalassemia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010; 5: 11.Rachmilewitz EA, Giardina PJ. How I treat thalassemia. Blood. 2011; 118: 3479-88.
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