Abstract:
We provide a mathematical analysis of appearance of the concentrations (as Dirac masses) of the solution to a Fokker-Planck system with asymmetric potentials. This problem has been proposed as a model to describe motor proteins moving along molecular filaments. The components of the system describe the densities of the different conformations of the proteins. Our results are based on the study of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation arising, at the zero diffusion limit, after an exponential transformation change of the phase function that rises a Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We consider different classes of conformation transitions coefficients (bounded, unbounded and locally vanishing).

Abstract:
This paper is concerned with diffusion-reaction equations where the classical diffusion term, such as the Laplacian operator, is replaced with a singular integral term, such as the fractional Laplacian operator. As far as the reaction term is concerned, we consider bistable non-linearities. After properly rescaling (in time and space) these integro-differential evolution equations, we show that the limits of their solutions as the scaling parameter goes to zero exhibit interfaces moving by anisotropic mean curvature. The singularity and the unbounded support of the potential at stake are both the novelty and the challenging difficulty of this work.

Abstract:
We study the homogenization of a $G$-equation which is advected by a divergence free stationary vector field in a general ergodic random environment. We prove that the averaged equation is an anisotropic deterministic G-equation and we give necessary and sufficient conditions in order to have enhancement. Since the problem is not assumed to be coercive it is not possible to have uniform bounds for the solutions. In addition, as we show, the associated minimal (first passage) time function does not satisfy, in general, the uniform integrability condition which is necessary to apply the sub-additive ergodic theorem. We overcome these obstacles by (i) establishing a new reachability (controllability) estimate for the minimal function and (ii) constructing, for each direction and almost surely, a random sequence which has both a long time averaged limit (due to the sub-additive ergodic theorem) and stays (in the same sense) asymptotically close to the minimal time.

Abstract:
We provide a self-contained analysis, based entirely on pde methods, of the exponentially long time behavior of solutions to linear uniformly parabolic equations which are small perturbations of a transport equation with vector field having a globally stable point. We show that the solutions converge to a constant, which is either the initial value at the stable point or the boundary value at the minimum of the associated quasi-potential. This work extends previous results of Freidlin and Wentzell and Freidlin and Koralov and applies also to semilinear elliptic pde.

Abstract:
We study the long-time behavior and the regularity of pathwise entropy solutions to stochastic scalar conservation laws with random in time spatially homogeneous fluxes and periodic initial data. We prove that the solutions converge to their spatial average, which is the unique invariant measure, and provide a rate of convergence, the latter being new even in the deterministic case for dimensions higher than two. The main tool is a new regularization result in the spirit of averaging lemmata for scalar conservation laws, which, in particular, implies a regularization by noise-type result for pathwise quasi-solutions.

Abstract:
This is the second part of our series of papers on metastability results for parabolic equations with drift. The aim is to present a self-contained study, using partial differential equations methods, of the metastability properties of quasi-linear parabolic equations with a drift and to obtain results similar to those in Freidlin and Koralov [Nonlinear stochastic perturbations of dynamical systems and quasi-linear parabolic PDE's with a small parameter, Probab. Theory Related Fields 147 (2010), ArXiv:0903.0428v2 (2012)].

Abstract:
The evolution of dispersal is a classical question in evolutionary ecology, which has been widely studied with several mathematical models. The main question is to define the fittest dispersal rate for a population in a bounded domain, and, more recently, for traveling waves in the full space. In the present study, we reformulate the problem in the context of adaptive evolution. We consider a population structured by space and a genetic trait acting directly on the dispersal (diffusion) rate under the effect of rare mutations on the genetic trait. We show that, as in simpler models, in the limit of vanishing mutations, the population concentrates on a single trait associated to the lowest dispersal rate. We also explain how to compute the evolution speed towards this evolutionary stable distribution. The mathematical interest stems from the asymptotic analysis which requires a completely different treatment of the different variables. For the space variable, the ellipticity leads to the use the maximum principle and Sobolev-type regularity results. For the trait variable, the concentration to a Dirac mass requires a different treatment. This is based on the WKB method and viscosity solutions leading to an effective Hamiltonian (effective fitness of the population) and a constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Abstract:
We prove that the effective nonlinearities (ergodic constants) obtained in the stochastic homogenization of Hamilton-Jacobi, "viscous" Hamilton-Jacobi and nonlinear uniformly elliptic pde are approximated by the analogous quantities of appropriate "periodizations" of the equations. We also obtain an error estimate, when there is a rate of convergence for the stochastic homogenization.

Abstract:
We study pathwise entropy solutions for scalar conservation laws with inhomogeneous fluxes and quasilinear multiplicative rough path dependence. This extends the previous work of Lions, Perthame and Souganidis who considered spatially independent and inhomogeneous fluxes with multiple paths and a single driving singular path respectively. The approach is motivated by the theory of stochastic viscosity solutions which relies on special test functions constructed by inverting locally the flow of the stochastic characteristics. For conservation laws this is best implemented at the level of the kinetic formulation which we follow here.

Abstract:
We consider the asymptotic behavior of an evolving weakly coupled Fokker-Planck system of two equations set in a periodic environment. The magnitudes of the diffusion and the coupling are respectively proportional and inversely proportional to the size of the period. We prove that, as the period tends to zero, the solutions of the system either propagate (concentrate) with a fixed constant velocity (determined by the data) or do not move at all. The system arises in the modeling of motor proteins which can take two different states. Our result implies that, in the limit, the molecules either move along a filament with a fixed direction and constant speed or remain immobile.