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Ethnic and gender differences in perceptions of mortality risk in a Canadian urban centre
Gilat L Grunau, Pamela A Ratner, Shahadut Hossain
International Journal of General Medicine , 2008, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S3797
Abstract: hnic and gender differences in perceptions of mortality risk in a Canadian urban centre Original Research (3839) Total Article Views Authors: Gilat L Grunau, Pamela A Ratner, Shahadut Hossain Published Date September 2008 Volume 2008:1 Pages 41 - 50 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S3797 Gilat L Grunau1, Pamela A Ratner1,2, Shahadut Hossain1 1NEXUS; 2School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Background: Women reportedly do not perceive heart disease (HD) as a major threat to their health; however, men’s perceptions are rarely studied. Purpose: We explored gender and ethnic differences in risk perception of HD mortality. Methods: The survey was completed by 976 people 40+ years of age, in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. Results: Men, compared with women, were more likely not to know the answer to a question about whether HD is the most common cause of death for women; however, women were more likely not to know the answer to a question about whether HD is the most common cause of death for men. Chinese-Canadian and South Asian-Canadian participants were more likely than participants of other ethnic groups not to know the answer to either question, and the Chinese-Canadian participants were more likely to disagree that HD is the most common cause of death for women. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the Chinese-Canadian and South Asian-Canadian communities about HD as a first step in promoting health behavior change. Men and women must be educated about the other gender’s risk of HD because all adults play integral roles in making decisions about the prevention of and early intervention for HD.
Ethnic and gender differences in perceptions of mortality risk in a Canadian urban centre
Gilat L Grunau,Pamela A Ratner,Shahadut Hossain
International Journal of General Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Gilat L Grunau1, Pamela A Ratner1,2, Shahadut Hossain11NEXUS; 2School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaBackground: Women reportedly do not perceive heart disease (HD) as a major threat to their health; however, men’s perceptions are rarely studied.Purpose: We explored gender and ethnic differences in risk perception of HD mortality.Methods: The survey was completed by 976 people 40+ years of age, in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada.Results: Men, compared with women, were more likely not to know the answer to a question about whether HD is the most common cause of death for women; however, women were more likely not to know the answer to a question about whether HD is the most common cause of death for men. Chinese-Canadian and South Asian-Canadian participants were more likely than participants of other ethnic groups not to know the answer to either question, and the Chinese-Canadian participants were more likely to disagree that HD is the most common cause of death for women.Conclusion: There is a need to educate the Chinese-Canadian and South Asian-Canadian communities about HD as a first step in promoting health behavior change. Men and women must be educated about the other gender’s risk of HD because all adults play integral roles in making decisions about the prevention of and early intervention for HD.Keywords: risk assessment, heart disease, mortality, gender, ethnic groups
Self-reported physical and mental health status and quality of life in adolescents: a latent variable mediation model
Richard Sawatzky, Pamela A Ratner, Joy L Johnson, Jacek A Kopec, Bruno D Zumbo
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-17
Abstract: The data were obtained via a cross-sectional health survey of 8,225 adolescents in 49 schools in British Columbia, Canada. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the implied latent variable mediation model. The Pratt index (d) was used to evaluate variable importance.Relative to one another, self-reported mental health status was found to be more strongly associated with depressive symptoms, and self-reported physical health status more strongly associated with physical activity. Self-reported physical and mental health status and the five life domains explained 76% of the variance in global QOL. Relatively poorer mental health and physical health were significantly associated with lower satisfaction in each of the life domains. Global QOL was predominantly explained by three of the variables: mental health status (d = 30%), satisfaction with self (d = 42%), and satisfaction with family (d = 20%). Satisfaction with self and family were the predominant mediators of mental health and global QOL (45% total mediation), and of physical health and global QOL (68% total mediation).This study provides support for the validity and relevance of differentiating self-reported physical and mental health status in adolescent health surveys. Self-reported mental health status and, to a lesser extent, self-reported physical health status were associated with significant differences in the adolescents' satisfaction with their family, friends, living environment, school experiences, self, and their global QOL. Questions about adolescents' self-reported physical and mental health status and their experiences with these life domains require more research attention so as to target appropriate supportive services, particularly for adolescents with mental or physical health challenges.Health researchers and providers increasingly recognize the importance of obtaining information about adolescents' perspectives of their quality of life (QOL) [1-10]. Several instruments have been
A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure
Stephanie E Coen, Joan L Bottorff, Joy L Johnson, Pamela A Ratner
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-8-29
Abstract: Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts.The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning.A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation.Multidisciplinary approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most urgent contemporary health challenges, yet many university-based researchers struggle with a basic lack of administrative and material resources extending beyond departmental bounds to facilitate and formalise these collaborations. The highly decentralised structure typical of many university environments has traditionally circumscribed the scope of research support and facilities to specific faculties, schools, or departments. Such fragmentation creates major practical obstacles for investigators attempting to develop partnerships and teams with diverse expertise [1-3]. One organisational solution widely lauded for facilitating multidi
The Influence of Web- Versus Paper-based Formats on the Assessment of Tobacco Dependence: Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale
Chris G. Richardson, Joy L. Johnson, Pamela A. Ratner and Bruno D. Zumbo
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mode of administration (internet-based, web survey format versus pencil-and-paper format) on responses to the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS). Responses from 1,484 adolescents that reported using tobacco (mean age 16 years) were examined; 354 (23.9%) participants completed a web-based version and 1,130 (76.1%) completed a paper-based version of the survey. Both surveys were completed in supervised classroom environments. Use of the web-based format was associated with significantly shorter completion times and a small but statistically significant increase in the number of missing responses. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that using a web-based mode of administration did not influence the psychometric functioning of the DTDS. There were no significant differences between the web- and paper-based groups’ ratings of the survey’s length, their question comprehension, and their response accuracy. Overall, the results of the study support the equivalence of scores obtained from web- and paper-based versions of the DTDS in secondary school settings.
The Influence of Web- Versus Paper-based Formats on the Assessment of Tobacco Dependence: Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale
Chris G. Richardson,Joy L. Johnson,Pamela A. Ratner,Bruno D. Zumbo
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mode of administration (internet-based, web survey format versus pencil-and-paper format) on responses to the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS). Responses from 1,484 adolescents that reported using tobacco (mean age 16 years) were examined; 354 (23.9%) participants completed a web-based version and 1,130 (76.1%) completed a paper-based version of the survey. Both surveys were completed in supervised classroom environments. Use of the web-based format was associated with significantly shorter completion times and a small but statistically significant increase in the number of missing responses. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that using a web-based mode of administration did not influence the psychometric functioning of the DTDS. There were no significant differences between the web- and paper-based groups’ ratings of the survey’s length, their question comprehension, and their response accuracy. Overall, the results of the study support the equivalence of scores obtained from web- and paper-based versions of the DTDS in secondary school settings.
Knowledge of “Heart Attack” Symptoms in a Canadian Urban Community
Pamela A. Ratner,Joy L. Johnson,Martha Mackay,Andrew W. Tu
Clinical Medicine : Cardiology , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Temporal delays in myocardial infarction (MI) treatment have been addressed through patient and physician education, innovations in prehospital fibrinolysis, and improvements to emergency medical services, yet the most significant contributor to delayed treatment is the patient’s ability to recognize and respond to symptoms.Purpose: To determine whether public health education campaigns have achieved their desired reach by ensuring that all segments of the population recognize the symptoms of MI (“heart attack”).Methods: 976 men and women, 40+ years of age, randomly selected from Metro Vancouver, Canada completed a telephone survey in English, Punjabi, Mandarin, or Cantonese. Respondents’ knowledge of MI symptoms was assessed; 10 “correct symptoms” were considered to be: chest pain/pressure/tightness/discomfort, arm pain, shortness of breath, nausea/indigestion, sweating/clamminess, shoulder/back pain, dizziness/faintness/light headedness, jaw pain, weakness, and uneasiness/panic/anxiety.Results: 3.2% of the sample could not identify any correct symptoms and 53.3% were able to describe 3+ symptoms. Significant associations were found between the number of correct symptoms and gender, ethnicity, education, exposure to health professional counseling, and worry about having a heart attack. The least number of correct symptoms were reported by: men (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.87; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.81 0.95), Chinese-Canadian participants (IRR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.65 0.83; relative to European-Canadian born participants), those with less than high school education (IRR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66 0.92; relative to those with more than high school), those with no health professional counseling (IRR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84 1.00), and those who did not worry “at all” about having a heart attack (IRR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 0.98; relative to those who worried sometimes/often/almost all the time).Conclusions: The participants were not well informed about the symptoms of heart attack. It will be challenging to educate the public sufficiently to reduce the time between the onset of symptoms and initiation of treatment for MI.
Gender-specific profiles of tobacco use among non-institutionalized people with serious mental illness
Joy L Johnson, Pamela A Ratner, Leslie A Malchy, Chizimuzo TC Okoli, Ric M Procyshyn, Joan L Bottorff, Marlee Groening, Annette Schultz, Marg Osborne
BMC Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-10-101
Abstract: Community residents with serious mental illness were surveyed to describe their patterns of tobacco use and to develop a gender-specific profile of their smoking status and its predictors.Of 729 respondents, almost one half (46.8%) were current tobacco users with high nicotine dependence levels. They spent a majority of their income on tobacco, and reported using smoking to cope with their psychiatric symptoms. Current smokers, compared with non-smokers, were more likely to be: diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (rather than a mood disorder); male; relatively young; not a member of a racialised group (e.g., Aboriginal, Asian, South Asian, Black); poorly educated; separated or divorced; housed in a residential facility, shelter, or on the street; receiving social assistance; and reporting co-morbid substance use. There is evidence of a gender interaction with these factors; in the gender-specific multivariate logistic regression models, schizophrenia spectrum disorder versus mood disorder was not predictive of women's smoking, nor was education, marital status or cocaine use. Women, and not men, however, were more likely to be smokers if they were young and living in a residential facility.For men only, the presence of schizophrenia spectrum disorder is a risk factor for tobacco use. Other factors, of a social nature, contribute to the risk of smoking for both men and women with serious mental illness. The findings suggest that important social determinants of smoking are "gendered" in this population, thus tobacco control and smoking cessation programming should be gender sensitive.In many countries, smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death. In North America, reductions in smoking rates are stabilising and, in recent years, those involved in tobacco control programming have turned their attention to particular segments of society that are at greatest risk for tobacco use, especially people with mental illness.An appreciation of the high r
Cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcome in registered nurses potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs
Pamela A Ratner, John J Spinelli, Kris Beking, Maria Lorenzi, Yat Chow, Kay Teschke, Nhu D Le, Richard P Gallagher, Helen Dimich-Ward
BMC Nursing , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-9-15
Abstract: Female RNs registered with a professional regulatory body for at least one year between 1974 and 2000 formed the cohort (n = 56,213). The identifier file was linked to Canadian cancer registries. An RN offspring cohort from 1986 was created by linkages with the BC Birth and Health Status Registries. Exposure was assessed by work history in oncology or cancer agencies (method 1) and by estimating weighted duration of exposure developed from a survey of pharmacists and nursing unit administrators of all provincial hospitals and treatment centers and the work history of the nurses (method 2). Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression for cancer incidence and odds ratios (OR) were calculated for congenital anomaly, stillbirth, low birth weight, and prematurity incidence, with 95% confidence intervals.In comparison with other female RNs, method 1 revealed that RNs who ever worked in a cancer center or in an oncology nursing unit had an increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.03 - 3.23, 12 cases) and their offspring were at risk for congenital anomalies of the eye (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.08 - 11.14, 3 cases). Method 2 revealed that RNs classified as having the highest weighted durations of exposure to antineoplastic drugs had an excess risk of cancer of the rectum (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07 - 3.29, 14 cases). No statistically significant increased risks of leukemia, other cancers, stillbirth, low birth weight, prematurity, or other congenital anomalies in the RNs' offspring were noted.Female RNs having had potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs were not found to have an excess risk of leukemia, stillbirth, or congenital anomalies in their offspring, with the exception of congenital anomalies of the eye, based on only three cases; however, elevated risks of breast and rectal cancer were observed.The nursing profession is known to involve occupational exposures that may have adverse health effects. Lie and Kj?heim's [1] review of 19 publi
Targeting HTLV-1 Activation of NFκB in Mouse Models and ATLL Patients
Daniel A. Rauch,Lee Ratner
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3060886
Abstract: Of the millions of HTLV-1 infected carriers worldwide, 3–5% will develop an aggressive T-cell neoplasm that is highly refractory to conventional therapy. The virus carries the Tax oncogene which constitutively activates the NFκB pathway. This co-option of signaling through NFκB provides for the HTLV-1 infected cell an escape from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, a steady source of growth factors, and a mechanism by which the virus can activate its own target cell. Therapies that target the NFκB pathway sensitize adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells to apoptosis. A focus on translational interrogation of NFκB inhibitors in animal models and ATLL patients is needed to advance NFκB-targeted ATLL therapies to the bedside.
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