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ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW
Pallabi Goswami,J.C Kalita
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs). This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the animals which gets exposed to the chemicals through wide variety of veterinary drugs, but also the aquatic organisms and other form of Wildlife which are non target and indirectly gets exposed to the chemicals through individual human activity. Parabens includes a group of compound of which methylparaben, butylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben are most widely used as preservatives in various PPCPs. Recent concern over the use of parabens has been drawn by the scientific community as these chemicals are reported to exert a weak estrogenic activity, with butylparaben showing the most potent activity among methyl-, ethyl- and propyl esters in in vitro recombinant yeast assay and in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Human exposure to butylparaben which occur mainly through inhalation, ingestion, or eye or skin contact, from intake of foods or drugs or use of cosmetics and personal care products where butylparaben is mainly used as a preservative. Effects of butylparaben are studied in various animal model systems like rodents to determine the possible effects in human which showed various effects which include defects in male reproductive system like increase in weight of epididymis, also change in serum testosterone level and a significant increase in uterine weight in ovariectomized and immature rats. Other effects include irritation to the respiratory tract, allergic skin reactions, atrophy of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes and multifocal degeneration and necrosis in the liver parenchyma were also observed. The aquatic effects of butylparaben include the feminization of male fish and alteration of the behaviors of either sex at part-per-trillion concentrations. A multitude of other aquatic effects are possible because hormone systems are central to the development, functioning, and reproduction of most organisms.
EFFECT OF SHORT TERM EXPOSURE OF BUTYLPARABEN ON UTERINE WEIGHT OF OVARIECTOMISED C3H ALBINO MICE
Pallabi Goswami,J.C Kalita
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Butylparaben is a commonly used anti microbial preservative in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food. The high rate of human exposure of butylparaben has been of growing concern as it is found to mimic estrogen activity in in vitro and in vivo system. Studies showed that butylparaben exerts reproductive toxicity in experimental animals. Several studies report in vivo estrogenic effect in CD1 and CF1 mice and there are known strain differences in sensitivity to endocrine disruption. In this experiment sensitivity of butylparaben exposure on uterus of ovariectomised C3H albino mice was studied through uterotrophic assay considering 5 different doses of 10 mg/Kg body weight/day, 50 mg/Kg body weight/day, 100 mg/Kg body weight/day, 500 mg/Kg body weight/day, 1000 mg/Kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days through subcutaneous route of administration. The ovariectomised C3H albino mice were grouped as vehicle control (olive oil), positive control (estradiol) and the above five different doses of Butylparaben. After the short term exposure of 7 days butylparaben is found to exert a dose dependent change in uterine weight of ovariectomised C3H albino mice.
EFFECT OF BUTYLPARABEN ON TOTAL UTERINE TISSUE PROTEIN IN ADULT C3H ALBINO MICE
Pallabi Goswami,J.C Kalita
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years, many environmental pollutants are found to posses estrogenic properties and thus these compounds are known as xenoestrogen or environmental estrogen. These environmental pollutants are present in wide variety of daily used products of human including variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products, foodstuff and products for children. Butylparaben is used in various cosmetics as a preservative like eye care make up products, sunscreen, facial products and skin anti aging products. Many experimental studies in in vivo and in vitro system have shown that butylparaben shows estrogenic activity. In this experiment the effect of butylparaben on studied the total uterine tissue protein in adult C3H albino mice was was studied by lowry method. Four doses of butylparaben 10 mg/Kg body weight/day, 50 mg/Kg body weight/day, 100 mg/Kg body weight/day and 500 mg/Kg body weight/day was administered for 7 consecutive days through subcutaneous route of administration. In the experiment olive oil was used as vehicle control and 17β estradiol was used as positive control. After 7 days of exposure butylparaben was found to increase total uterine tissue protein in adult C3H albino mice.
EFFECT OF HIGH DOSE OF BUTYLPARABEN ON LIVER WEIGHT OF OVARIECTOMISED C3H ALBINO MICE
Pallabi Goswami,J.C Kalita
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Exposure to natural and synthetic chemicals in the environment, with potential to interfere with the endocrine system, may elicit a wide range of toxic effects in wild-life and in humans, in particular on the reproductive system and with respect to the induction of cancer. Natural estrogens are a group of compounds that are steroid in nature and are primary female sex hormones. Butylparaben, a widely used preservative in many pharmaceuticals, personal care products and foodstuff is found to be estrogenic in nature and elicit toxic effect in various organs including liver, thyroid, kidney, spleen and reproductive organs. For the experiment two doses of butylparaben of 500 mg/kg body weight/day and 1000 mg/Kg body weight/day was considered. The ovariectomised C3H albino mice were grouped as vehicle control (olive oil), positive control (estradiol) and the above two doses of butylparaben which were administered for seven consecutive days through subcutaneous route of administration. After the short-term exposure of seven consecutive days, butylparaben was found to increase in liver weight of ovariectomised C3H albino mice. Positive control (estradiol) showed a significant increase in liver weight (p<0.01) compared to as vehicle control (olive oil). 500 mg/kg body weight/day and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day group showed a significant increase in liver weight (p<0.01) as compared to vehicle control (olive oil).
Perpetual Asset Management of Customer-Based Brand Equity-The PAM Evaluator
Pallabi Mishra and Biplab Datta
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2011,
Abstract: Customers and brands are the two most important intangible assets of any organization. This is a study about managing brands from customers viewpoints named as perpetual asset management. A model named as PAM evaluator has been formulated to discuss the importance of the effect of the brand assets treated as antecedents like brand name, awareness, personality and consequences like brand preference and purchase intention on customer based brand equity. The brand Nokia has been taken for the research. Hypotheses have been proposed and tested by using Structural Equation M odeling (SEM).
Optical and Structural Investigation of CdSe Quantum Dots Dispersed in PVA Matrix and Photovoltaic Applications
Pallabi Phukan,Dulen Saikia
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/728280
Abstract: CdSe quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix with their sizes within the quantum dot regime have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The effect of the concentrations of the cadmium source on the optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin films was investigated through UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The structural analysis and particle size determination as well as morphological studies of the CdSe/PVA nanocomposite thin films were done with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis reveals that CdSe/PVA nanocomposite thin film has a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. A prototype thin film solar cell of CdSe/CdTe has been synthesized and its photovoltaic parameters were measured. 1. Introduction Polymer nanocomposites are diverse and versatile functional materials in which nanoscale (1–100?nm) inorganic particles are dispersed in an organic polymer matrix to display enhanced optical, mechanical, magnetic, and optoelectronic properties [1–3]. The incorporation of semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrices is of great importance because of the potential applications of the resulting materials in wide variety of fields such as in fabrication of electronic devices [4–6], catalysis [7], gas sensors [8, 9], and nonlinear optics [10]. Bulk CdSe is a direct bandgap (1.74?eV) II-VI semiconductor with an exciton Bohr radius of 6?nm [11, 12]. It exhibits either sphalerite cubic (zinc-blende type) or hexagonal (wurtzite type) structure. The hexagonal state is the stable phase while the sphalerite cubic is the metastable state [13]. From technological perspective, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) are of significant interest because of their unique quantum confinement properties, bright photoluminescence, narrow emission band, and photostability [14]. CdSe-polymer nanocomposites find potential applications in the fabrication of devices like photovoltaic cells, laser, thin film transistors, light emitting diodes, and other nanoscale devices [15, 16]. Many methods have been developed to synthesize CdSe in thin film form which includes chemical bath deposition (CBD) [17], vacuum evaporation [18], electrodeposition [19], spray pyrolysis [20], and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) [21]. However, among these, CBD technique is preferable for the synthesis of polymer-capped CdSe nanocomposite thin film as it is easy to handle, cost effective, and suitable for large area deposition [22, 23]. In recent years, various works have focused on the synthesis and
A Characterization of Jacobson Radical in Γ-Banach Algebras  [PDF]
Nilakshi Goswami
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.26062
Abstract: Let V1 and V2 be two -Banach algebras and Ri be the right operator Banach algebra and Li be the left operator Banach algebra of Vi(i=1,2). We give a characterization of the Jacobson radical for the projective tensor product V1rV2 in terms of the Jacobson radical for R1rL2. If V1 and V2 are isomorphic, then we show that this characterization can also be given in terms of the Jacobson radical for R2rL1.
Lifshitz Transition Including Many-Body Effects in Bi-Layer Graphene and Change in Stacking Order  [PDF]
Partha Goswami
Graphene (Graphene) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2013.22013
Abstract: We consider the AB-(Bernal) stacking for the bi-layer graphene (BLG) system and assume that a perpendicular electric field is created by the external gates deposited on the BLG surface. In the basis (A1, B2, A2, B1) for the valleyKand the basis (B2, A1, B1, A2) for the valley K′, we show the occurrence of trigonal warping [1], that is, splitting of the energy bands or the density of states on the kx - ky plane into four pockets comprising of the central part and three legs due to a (skew) interlayer hopping between A1 and B2. The hopping between A1 - B2 leads to a concurrent velocity v3 in addition to the Fermi velocity vF. Our noteworthy outcome is that the above-mentioned topological change, referred to as the Lifshitz transition [2, 3], is entirely bias-tunable. Furthermore, the many-body effects, which is known to yield logarithmic renormalizations [4] in the band dispersions of monolayer graphene, is found to have significant effect on the bias-tunability of this transition. We also consider a variant of the system where the A atoms of the two layers are over each other and the B atoms of the layers are displaced with respect to each other. The Fermi energy density of statesfor zero bias corresponds to the inverted sombrero-like structure. The structure is found to get deformed due to the increase in the bias.
Importance of integrin receptors in the field of pharmaceutical & medical science  [PDF]
Sumit Goswami
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.32028
Abstract: Integrin receptors have remained as a key subject of interest in the pharmaceutical industry for the last few years. There are a total of 24 different types of integrin heterodimers. Each of these heterodimers plays important role in various biological processes that are inherent to different pathological conditions. As a result, integrin receptors have been extensively evaluated for their role in therapeutic targeting. There are different classes of inhibitors against integrin receptors and this review provides an overview on different classes of integrin inhibitors that are currently available. A number of review articles have been written on the possible application of integrin receptors in therapeutic targeting. Many of these articles have heavily emphasized on the importance of αvβ3 & αvβ5 receptors as major pharmaceutical target in cancer but little emphasis has been given on the importance of other integrin receptors, such as α5β1, αIIbβ3, α4β7, αvβ6 etc. While this review gives due importance to both αvβ3 & αvβ5 receptors and provides an historical perspective on how these two receptors have evolved as a potential target for cancer, significant emphasis has also been given on the other integrin receptors that have started enjoying the status of important drug target over the course of last few years. Effort has been maintained to discuss briefly on the key physiological basis of their importance as drug target. For example, involvement of αvβ3 in angiogenesis has made it a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. At the same time expression of this receptor on the surface of osteoclast has made it a target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Thus, emphasis has been given on discussing the role of the integrin receptors in different disease conditions followed by specific examples of drug molecules that have been trialed against these receptors. While hundreds of candidate molecules have been developed against different integrin receptors only a handful of them has been subject to phase-III clinical trial. That necessitates careful consideration of certain concerns that are associated with direct targeting of integrins and thus has also been an important goal of this review. In the last few years application of integrin receptors have extended beyond mere therapeutic targeting. Several integrin receptors are currently are studied for their potential of aiding at diagnostic imaging and drug delivery. In this review a brief overview has also been provided on how integrin are being
A Miniaturized Wilkinson Power Divider Using DGS and Fractal Structure for GSM Application
Nisha Gupta;Pallabi Ghosh;Megha Toppo
PIER Letters , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIERL11082104
Abstract: This paper proposes a miniaturization method for conventional Wilkinson Power Divider(WPD) by replacing the quarter wave sections with the help of fractals. The performance degradation is compensated by using Defected Ground Structure (DGS). The resultant device occupies 56% of the area in comparison to the conventional WPD. The simulation results show a reflection coefficient of -66.98 dB and isolation of 24.1021 dB at the centre frequency of 1.8 GHz. Finally a prototype model is developed on a low cost FR4 Glass Epoxy substrate and tested. The experimental results show a good agreement with the simulation results.
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