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Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains from oil mill waste
TS Mohan, A Palavesam, G Immanvel
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47oC) and various substrate concentrations. The result indicated that the lipase production varied between Bacillus strains and also between varying parameters tested. The maximum lipase production was recorded at pH 7 during 24 h of the culture period by Bacillus strain B5. Among the substrates tested, coconut oil at a concentration of 0.5% was found to enhance the lipase production in the same Bacillus strain B5. Further the effect of medium temperature indicated that the production of lipase was maximum at 37oC. Statistical analysis revealed that the variation in lipase production was highly significant between bacterial strains than the independent influence of pH, substrates concentration and medium temperature.
Bioencapsulation strategy and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) enrichment in Artemia franciscana nauplii by using marine trash fish Odonus niger liver oil
G Immanuel, T Citarasu, V Sivaram, VS Shankar, A Palavesam
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: To investigate the maximum accumulation of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in Artemia franciscana nauplii through bioencapsulation process, five different concentrations (0 - 4%) of emulsified Odonus niger liver oil were prepared. The prepared emulsions were used to enrich A. franciscana at different time intervals of 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. After the enrichment period, the fatty acid composition of the nauplii were analysed and estimated individually along with freshly hatched A. franciscana and O. niger liver oil. The HUFA content such as linoleic (18: 2n-6), linolenic (18: 3n-3), arachidonic (20: 4n-3 + n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20: 5-n3) and docosahexaenoic (22: 6n-3) acids were 12.87, 0.21, 2.66, 2.86 and 2.30% dry weight (DW), respectively, in O. niger liver oil, and 8.60, 17.20, 1.80, 2.40 and 0.1% DW, respectively, in freshly hatched A. franciscana. During 6 – 24 h of enrichment period, all the above HUFA increased considerably from 8.76 to 10.84, 17.24 to 23.84, 1.16 to 3.98, 2.45 to 5.88 and 0.30 to 2.69% DW, respectively. The increase in the level of individual HUFA of A. franciscana enriched with various concentrations of emulsified liver oil at different time durations showed a positive linear relationship and the correlation coefficient obtained were statistically significant (P< 0.05).
Influence of four ornamental flowers on the growth and colouration of orange sword tail chicilidae fish (xiphophorus hellerei, heckel, 1940)
Baby Joseph S Sujatha,J Jemima Shalin, A Palavesam
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: The present research was designed to study the effect four botanical additives (H. rosasinensis, Rosa indica, Ixora coccinea and Crossandra infundibuliformiss) on the growth and body colouration of an ornamental fish of red sword tail Xiphophorus hellerei (Heckel). This experiment was conducted in adult female fish for a period of 75 days. The carotenoid pigment sources were added to the supplementary diet at 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 percent levels of concentrations respectively. The fishes were treated with at the rate of 5 to ten percent level of body weight. Three fold increases in growth was observed in H. rosasinensis fed fishes followed by R. indica. Furthermore, the similar weight gain has been observed rest of the two flower petals (I. coccinea and C. infundibuliformiss). The percentage of colour pigments obtained in adult fish were maximum in I. coccinea one percent level then remaining flowers peal showed another highest pigment production was R. indica, H. rosasinensis and C. infundibuliformiss. Consequently a significant difference was found between individuals fed by natural pigment material and those by unpigmented feeds (p≤0.05). It was demonstrated that natural pigment substances have an impact on coloration of cichlid and the groups did not exhibit any distinctions in feed conversion and growth rates. Therefore, it was determined that these pigment sources have an effect on the colour of cichlid fish.
Post-Integration Silencing of piggyBac Transposable Elements in Aedes aegypti
Azhahianambi Palavesam, Caroline Esnault, David A. O’Brochta
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068454
Abstract: The piggyBac transposon, originating in the genome of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni, has a broad host range, making it useful for the development of a number of transposon-based functional genomic technologies including gene vectors, enhancer-, gene- and protein-traps. While capable of being used as a vector for the creation of transgenic insects and insect cell lines, piggyBac has very limited mobility once integrated into the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. A transgenic Aedes aegypti cell line (AagPB8) was created containing three integrated piggyBac elements and the remobilization potential of the elements was tested. The integrated piggyBac elements in AagPB8 were transpositionally silent in the presence of functional transposase, which was shown to be capable of catalyzing the movement of plasmid-borne piggyBac elements in the same cells. The structural integrity of one of the integrated elements along with the quality of element-flanking DNA, which is known to influence transposition rates, were tested in D. melanogaster. The element was found to be structurally intact, capable of transposition and excision in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster, and in a DNA sequence context highly conducive to element movement in Drosophila melanogaster. These data show that transpositional silencing of integrated piggyBac elements in the genome of Aedes aegypti appears to be a function of higher scale genome organization or perhaps epigenetic factors, and not due to structural defects or suboptimal integration sites.
Preliminary phytochemical and antiulcer studies of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. root extracts
Anita Gnana Kumari A,Palavesam A,Anbu Jeba Sunilson J,Anandarajagopal K
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The antiulcer activity of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots was evaluated in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. The root extracts were prepared by cold maceration process with petroleum ether, alcohol and water separately. The preliminary phytochemical screening of H. rosa sinensis revealed the presence of sterols, glycosides, proteins, mucilage and flavonoids. Oral administration of aqueous and alcohol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) of H. rosa sinensis roots were evaluated for antiulcer activity and compared with the standard drug, lansoperazole (8 mg/kg). From the results, it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of H. rosa sinensis roots (500 mg/kg) showed highly significant (P< 0.001) dose-dependent antiulcer activity. These results lend scientific support for the plant as folk medicine.
Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans
Azhahianambi Palavesam, Felix D. Guerrero, Andrew M. Heekin, Ju Wang, Scot E. Dowd, Yan Sun, Lane D. Foil, Adalberto A. Pérez de León
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044390
Abstract: The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004
Abstract:

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

Equilibria and Stability in Glycine, Tartrate and Tryptophan Complexes, Investigation on Interactions in Cu(II) Binary and Ternary Systems in Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials (OJINM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.41001
Abstract:

The acidity and stability constants of M(Gly)1, M(Ttr)1, and M(Trp)1 M: Cu2+, Cu(Bpy2)2+, and Cu(Phen3)2+ complexes, were determined by potentiometric pH titration. It is shown that the stability of the binary Cu(L), (L: Gly, Ttr, and Trp) complex is determined by the basicity of the carboxylate group on one side and amino group on the other side. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium, Cu(Ha4)2+ + Cu(L) \"\"Cu(Har)(L) + Cu2+, is displacement due to the well known experience that mixed ligand complexes formed by a divalent 3d ion, a heteroaromatic N base and an O donor ligand possess increased stability. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Cu2+, Cu(Bpy)2+ or Cu(Phen)2+

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