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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4754 matches for " Pai-Chien Chou "
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Endobronchial Mucosa Invasion Predicts Survival in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer
Pai-Chien Chou, Shu-Min Lin, Chun-Yu Lo, Hao-Cheng Chen, Chih-Wei Wang, Chun-Liang Chou, Chih-Teng Yu, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Chun-Hua Wang, Han-Pin Kuo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047613
Abstract: Background Current staging system for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) categorizes patients into limited- or extensive-stage disease groups according to anatomical localizations. Even so, a wide-range of survival times has been observed among patients in the same staging system. This study aimed to identify whether endobronchial mucosa invasion is an independent predictor for poor survival in patients with SCLC, and to compare the survival time between patients with and without endobronchial mucosa invasion. Methods We studied 432 consecutive patients with SCLC based on histological examination of biopsy specimens or on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and received computed tomography and bone scan for staging. All the enrolled patients were assessed for endobronchial mucosa invasion by bronchoscopic and histological examination. Survival days were compared between patients with or without endobronchial mucosa invasion and the predictors of decreased survival days were investigated. Results 84% (364/432) of SCLC patients had endobronchial mucosal invasion by cancer cells at initial diagnosis. Endobronchial mucosal involvement (Hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.30–3.10), age (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.06), and extensive stage (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06–1.84) were independent contributing factors for shorter survival time, while received chemotherapy (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25–0.42) was an independent contributing factor better outcome. The survival days of SCLC patients with endobronchial involvement were markedly decreased compared with patients without (median 145 vs. 290, p<0.0001). Among SCLC patients of either limited (median 180 vs. 460, p<0.0001) or extensive (median 125 vs. 207, p<0.0001) stages, the median survival duration for patients with endobronchial mucosal invasion was shorter than those with intact endobronchial mucosa, respectively. Conclusion Endobronchial mucosal involvement is an independent prognostic factor for SCLC patients and associated with decreased survival days.
Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Low- and High-Concentration Isoniazid-Monoresistant Tuberculosis
Tsai-Yu Wang, Shu-Min Lin, Shian-Sen Shie, Pai-Chien Chou, Chien-Da Huang, Fu-Tsai Chung, Chih-His Kuo, Po-Jui Chang, Han-Pin Kuo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086316
Abstract: Background Isoniazid (INH) resistance is now the most common type of tuberculosis (TB) infection resistance worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB. Methods One hundred and thirty-four patients with culture-confirmed INH-monoresistant TB during 2006 January to 2007 December were retrospectively enrolled. INH resistance was classified as either low-concentration or high-concentration resistance according to the critical concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or 1 μg/mL of INH, respectively. The patients’ clinical outcomes, treatment regimens, and treatment duration were analyzed. Results The treatment success rates between low- and high-concentration INH-resistant TB were similar (81.8% vs. 86.7%). The treatment regimens and treatment duration were similar between both groups. Only a minor percentage of the patients in both groups received 6-month treatment regimens (low vs. high concentration resistance, 9.1% vs. 13.3%; respectively, p = 0.447) The most common reason for treatment duration longer than 6 months was pyrazinamide given for less than 6 months, followed by a delay in clinical response to treatment. Multivariable analysis showed that prior tuberculosis treatment (Odds ratio, 2.82, 95% C.I., 1.02–7.77, p = 0.045) was the only independent risk factor for unsuccessful treatment outcome. Conclusion Different levels of INH resistance did not affect the treatment outcomes of patients with INH-monoresistant tuberculosis. Prolonged Rifampin-containing regimens may achieve those good outcomes in patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB.
Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Polymorphism (-1607G) and Disease Severity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis in Taiwan
Meng-Heng Hsieh, Pai-Chien Chou, Chun-Liang Chou, Shu-Chuan Ho, Wen-Ching Joa, Li-Fei Chen, Te-Fang Sheng, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Tsai-Yu Wang, Po-Jui Chang, Chun-Hua Wang, Han-Pin Kuo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066265
Abstract: Objectives Bronchiectasis is characterized by an irreversible dilatation of bronchi and is associated with lung fibrosis. MMP-1 polymorphism may alter its transcriptional activity, and differentially modulate bronchial destruction and lung fibrosis. Design To investigate the association of MMP-1 polymorphisms with disease severity in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis patients, 51 normal subjects and 113 patients with bronchiectasis were studied. The associations between MMP-1 polymorphisms, lung function, and disease severity evaluated by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were analyzed. Results The frequency of MMP-1(-1607G) allele was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than normal subjects (70.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.01). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G (1.2±0.1 L, n = 14) and 1G/2G (1.3±0.1 L, n = 66) genotypes compared to the 2G/2G genotype (1.7±0.1 L, n = 33, p<0.01). Six minute walking distance was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Disease severity evaluated by HRCT score significantly increased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotypes compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Bronchiectasis patients with at least one MMP-1 (-1607G) allele showed increased tendency for hospitalization. Serum levels of pro-MMP-1, active MMP-1 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients with bronchiectasis with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotype compared with 2G/2G genotype or normal subjects. Under IL-1β stimulation, peripheral blood monocytes from subjects with 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotype secreted higher levels of TGF-β1compared to subjects with 2G/2G genotype. Conclusion This is the first report to address the influence of MMP-1 polymorphisms on lung function and airway destruction in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. Bronchiectasis patients with MMP-1(-1607G) polymorphism may be more vulnerable to permanent lung fibrosis or airway destruction due to the enhanced MMP-1 and TGF-β1 activity. Upregulated MMP-1 activity results in proteolytic destruction of matrix, and leads to subsequent fibrosis.
Particle Swarm Optimization for Identifying Rainfall-Runoff Relationships  [PDF]
Chien-Ming Chou
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.43014
Abstract: Rainfall-runoff processes can be considered a single input-output system where the observed rainfall and runoff are inputs and outputs, respectively. Conventional models of these processes cannot simultaneously identify unknown structures of the system and estimate unknown parameters. This study applied a combinational optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for simultaneous identification of system structure and parameters of the rainfall-runoff relationship. Subsystems in proposed model are modeled using combinations of classic models. Classic models are used to transform the system structure identification problem into a combinational optimization and can be selected from those typically used in the hydrological field. A PSO is then applied to select the optimized subsystem model with the best data fit. The parameters are estimated simultaneously. The proposed model is tested in a case study of daily rainfall-runoff for the upstream Kee-Lung River. Comparison of the proposed method with simple linear model (SLM) shows that, in both calibration and validation, the PSO simulates the time of peak arrival more accurately compared to the SLM. Analytical results also confirm that the PSO accurately identifies the system structure and parameters of the rainfall-runoff relationship, which are a useful reference for water resource planning and application.
Wavelet-Based Multi-Scale Entropy Analysis of Complex Rainfall Time Series
Chien-Ming Chou
Entropy , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/e13010241
Abstract: This paper presents a novel framework to determine the number of resolution levels in the application of a wavelet transformation to a rainfall time series. The rainfall time series are decomposed using the à trous wavelet transform. Then, multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis that helps to elucidate some hidden characteristics of the original rainfall time series is applied to the decomposed rainfall time series. The analysis shows that the Mann-Kendall (MK) rank correlation test of MSE curves of residuals at various resolution levels could determine the number of resolution levels in the wavelet decomposition. The complexity of rainfall time series at four stations on a multi-scale is compared. The results reveal that the suggested number of resolution levels can be obtained using MSE analysis and MK test. The complexity of rainfall time series at various locations can also be analyzed to provide a reference for water resource planning and application.
Applying Multiscale Entropy to the Complexity Analysis of Rainfall-Runoff Relationships
Chien-Ming Chou
Entropy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/e14050945
Abstract: This paper presents a novel framework for the complexity analysis of rainfall, runoff, and runoff coefficient (RC) time series using multiscale entropy (MSE). The MSE analysis of RC time series was used to investigate changes in the complexity of rainfall-runoff processes due to human activities. Firstly, a coarse graining process was applied to a time series. The sample entropy was then computed for each coarse-grained time series, and plotted as a function of the scale factor. The proposed method was tested in a case study of daily rainfall and runoff data for the upstream Wu–Tu watershed. Results show that the entropy measures of rainfall time series are higher than those of runoff time series at all scale factors. The entropy measures of the RC time series are between the entropy measures of the rainfall and runoff time series at various scale factors. Results also show that the entropy values of rainfall, runoff, and RC time series increase as scale factors increase. The changes in the complexity of RC time series indicate the changes of rainfall-runoff relations due to human activities and provide a reference for the selection of rainfall-runoff models that are capable of dealing with great complexity and take into account of obvious self-similarity can be suggested to the modeling of rainfall-runoff processes. Moreover, the robustness of the MSE results were tested to confirm that MSE analysis is consistent and the same results when removing 25% data, making this approach suitable for the complexity analysis of rainfall, runoff, and RC time series.
Controlling Information Flows Among Object-Oriented Systems to Prevent Information Leakage
Shih-Chien Chou
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Many information flow control models were available to prevent information leakage within a system. Since systems may cooperate, it is necessary to prevent information leakage among cooperating systems when they communicate. Our survey shows that no existing model offers the prevention. In the past years, we developed an information flow control model based on RBAC (role-based access control), which is named OORBAC (object-oriented role-based access control). Like other existing models, OORBAC cannot prevent information leakage among systems. To offer the prevention, we extended OORBAC. The extension is based on the consideration: when information is passed from a system to another one, the security level of the information being passed should be the same as or lower than the security level of the variable receiving the information. This study shows the extended model and its evaluation.
Coordinating Heterogeneous Information Flow Control Models
Shih-Chien Chou
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: A complicated software system can be decomposed into subsystems for different teams to develop, in which the teams may distribute geographically and need not belong to the same company. Many issues should be solved when developing software systems in this manner. For example, developing a software system that can prevent information leakage during the execution of the systems is an essential issue. The prevention can be achieved by embedding an information flow control model in the system. Since the teams that develop a software system need not belong to the same company, different teams may be familiar with different information flow control models. To embed information flow control model in a complicated software system decomposed into subsystems, the following approaches can be used: (a) embedding the same information flow control model in every subsystem and (b) allowing different information flow control models to be embedded in different subsystems. If the first approach is used, software developers unfamiliar with the assigned model may be unwilling to use the model. Moreover, if a software system is developed through reuse, the reused components may be embedded with different information flow control models. This causes difficulty in the reuse. We suggest that the second approach should be used and propose a model IFCMC (information flow control model coordinator) to coordinate heterogeneous information flow control models. This study proposes IFCMC and its evaluation.
A Partial Ordered Number System for Information Flow Control
Shih-Chien Chou
International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Information flow control models can be applied widely. This paper discusses only the models preventing information leakage during program execution. In the prevention, an information flow control model dynamically monitors statements that will cause information flows and ban statements that may cause leakage. We involved in the research of information flow control for years and identified that sensitive information may be leaked only when it is output. However, most existing models ignore information flows induced by output statements. We thus designed a new model XIFC (X information flow control) that especially emphasizes the monitoring of output statements. We also designed XIFC as a precise and low runtime overhead model. To achieve this purpose, we took a different viewpoint to re-examine the features offered by existing models and extracted a necessary feature set for the design. Our experiments show that XIFC bans every non-secure information flow and substantially reduces runtime overhead when comparing with our previous work.
Regression Analysis with Block Missing Values and Variables Selection
Chien-Pai Han,Yan Li
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v7i2-sp.303
Abstract: We consider a regression model when a block of observations is missing, i.e. there are a group of observations with all the explanatory variables or covariates observed and another set of observations with only a block of the variables observed. We propose an estimator of the regression coefficients that is a combination of two estimators, one based on the observations with no missing variables, and the other the set all observations after deleting of the block of variables with missing values. The proposed combined estimator will be compared with the uncombined estimators. If the experimenter suspects that the variables with missing values may be deleted, a preliminary test will be performed to resolve the uncertainty. If the preliminary test of the null hypothesis that regression coefficients of the variables with missing value equal to zero is accepted, then only the data with no missing values are used for estimating the regression coefficients. Otherwise the combined estimator is used. This gives a preliminary test estimator. The properties of the preliminary test estimator and comparisons of the estimators are studied by a Monte Carlo study
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