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Comparative essential oil composition of different vegetative parts of Hedychium spicatum Smith. from Uttarakhand, India
Verma Ram,Padalia Rajendra
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The volatile essential oil constituents of leaves, rhizomes and roots of Hedychium spicatum Smith. from Uttarakhand, India, were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 39 constituents accounting for 78.7-96.4% of the oils were identified. The essential oils of the roots and rhizomes were marked by the presence of high amount of oxygenated monoterpenoids (60.9% and 65.9%, respectively). The most abundant oxygenated monoterpenoid of these oils was 1,8 cineole (48.7% and 64.0%, respectively). However, leaf oils obtained from two distinct locations, viz. "Song" and "Bhowali" were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (β-pinene 40.9%, α-pinene 9.6%) and oxygenated monoterpenoids (1,8 cineole 34.2%), respectively.
Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India
Rajendra C. Padalia
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6%) are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%), menthone (1.5-11.0%), menthyl acetate (0.5-5.3%), isomenthone (2.1-3.9%), limonene (1.2-3.3%) and neomenthol (1.9-2.5%). Carvone (51.3-65.1%), limonene (15.1-25.2%), -pinene (1.3-3.2%) and 1,8-cineole (≤0.1-3.6%) are the major constituents in 5 cultivars of M. spicata, while in one cultivar (Ganga) of M. spicata the major constituents are piperitenone oxide (76.7%), α-terpineol (4.9%) and limonene (4.7%). Linalool (59.7%), linalyl acetate (18.4%), nerol (2.0%), trans-p-menth-1-en-2-ol (1.8%), a-terpineol (1.5%) and limonene (1.1%) are the major constituents of M. citrata.
Essential Oil Composition of Aralia cachemirica from Uttarakhand, India
Ram S. Verma,Rajendra C. Padalia,Anju Yadav,Amit Chauhan
Records of Natural Products , 2010,
Abstract: The essential oils obtained from leaves and roots of Aralia cachemirica were analyzed by capillary GC and GC-MS . A total of 25 constituents, representing 9.14 % in leaf essential oil and 26 components, representing 96.5% in root essential oil were identified. Both leaf and root oils were characterized by the presence of α-pinene (41.0%, 52.7%) and β-pinene (35.1%, 13.6%) as the major constituents. Other constituents identified in significant amount were b -caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, myrtenol and borneol.
Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region
Rajendra C. Padalia,Ram S. Verma,Vellu Sundaresan
Records of Natural Products , 2010,
Abstract: The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8%) represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7%) with germacrene D (27.9%), germacrene B (16.3%), b-caryophyllene (9.6%), b-selinene (6.2%), α-humulene (5.8%) as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6%) and 1,8-cineole (4.8%). Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%), 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11)-dien-8-one (7.8%) and amorph-4,7(11)-dien-8-one (5.7%) were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%), bornyl acetate (15.6%) and camphene (8.9%). On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%), β-caryophyllene (20.7%), demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%), a-humulene (6.6%) and p-cymene (3.3%).
Chemical investigation of the volatile components of shade-dried petals of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.)
Verma Swaroop Ram,Padalia Chandra Rajendra,Chauhan Amit
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/abs1104111v
Abstract: Roses are always appreciated because of their inimitable aroma, many uses and of course their beauty. In addition to the different damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) products (oil, water, concrete, absolute, gulkand etc.), its dried petals are also used for various health purposes. The hydrodistilled volatile oil and water of shade-dried damask rose petals were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The predominant components of tThe essential oil and rose water were aliphatic hydrocarbons (56.4 and 46.3%), followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (14.7 and 8.7%). The main aliphatic hydrocarbons of the essential oil and rose water were heneicosane (19.7 and 15.7%), nonadecane (13.0 and 8.4%), tricosane (11.3 and 9.3%) and pentacosane (5.3 and 5.1%) while the content of 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol was 0.4% and 7.1% in the essential oil and rose water, respectively. The chemical composition of the dried rose petal volatiles is quite different from fresh flower volatiles.
Constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of six Himalayan Nepeta species
DINESH S. BISHT,RAJENDRA C. PADALIA,LALIT SINGH,VEENA PANDE
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2010,
Abstract: The essential oils from six Himalayan Nepeta species, viz. Nepeta leucophylla Benth., Nepeta discolor Royle ex Benth., Nepeta govaniana Benth., Nepeta clarkei Hook. f., Nepeta elliptica Royle ex Benth. and Nepeta erecta Benth., were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against six pathogenic bacterial and two fungal strains. The results showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive strain tested to the essential oils of Nepeta species. The essential oils of N. elliptica and N. erecta exhibited the highest activity against P. aeruginosa, followed by the essential oils of N. leucophylla and N. clarkei. The essential oils from N. elliptica and N. erecta were also found to be very effective against Serratia marcescens; while the essential oil from N. leucophylla displayed significant activity against Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. Other bacterial strains displayed variable degree of susceptibility against one or more of the tested essential oils. The essential oil from N. leucophylla also showed the highest antifungal activity against both tested fungal strains, viz. Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum, followed by the essential oils from N. clarkei, N. govaniana and N. erecta. Iridodial derivatives, viz. iridodial β-monoenol acetate (25.4 %), dihydroiridodial diacetate (18.2 %) and iridodial dienol diacetate (7.8 %) were identified as the major constituents of N. leucophylla, while the essential oils from N. elliptica and N. erecta were dominated by (7R)-trans,trans nepetalactone (83.4 %) and isoiri-domyrmecin (66.7 %), respectively. The essential oil of N. discolor was characterized by 1,8-cineole (25.5 %) and β-caryophyllene (18.6 %), while N. clarkei was dominated by β-sesquiphellandrene (22.0 %) and germacrene D (13.0 %). Isoiridomyrmecin (35.2 %) and pregeijerene (20.7 %) were identified as the major constituents of N. govaniana. In general the Nepeta species containing constituents with an iridoid or lactone skeleton were found to have the greater antagonistic activity against most of the microbial strains as compared to those containing regular terpene constituents.
Chemical Fingerprinting of the Fragrant Volatiles of Nineteen Indian Cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae)
Rajendra C. Padalia,Ram S. Verma,Chandan S Chanotiya,Anju Yadav
Records of Natural Products , 2011,
Abstract: The essential oil compositions of total nineteen cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae) species viz. C. martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud, C. winterinus Jowitt., C. pendulus Nees ex Steud. and a hybrid of C. khasianus (Hack) Stapf. ex Bor and C. pendulus Nees ex Steud. were examined and compared using capillary GC and GC-MS . The analysis led to the identification of 48 constituents forming 90.1% to 99.7% of their total oil compositions with monoterpenoids (78.9% to 97.4%) as the most exclusive constituents. The comparative results showed considerable variation in the qualitative and quantitative compositions of essential oils from nineteen different cultivars of the studied Cymbopogon species. On the basis of chemical similarity the cultivars of genus Cymbopogon was divided into five chemical variants/groups within two series viz. Citrati and Rusae. The volatile profile of existing cultivars of Cymbopogon are useful for their commercial utilization as they possess range of essential oils and aroma chemicals used in perfumery, flavour, pharmaceutical and other allied industries. Moreover, the marker constituents in their essential oils may be utilized as an important tool in oil authentication.
Chemical investigation of the essential oil of Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & Wood from India, Short communication
RAM S. VERMA,RAJENDRA C. PADALIA,CHANDAN S. CHANOTIYA,AMIT CHAUHAN
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2011,
Abstract: Hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & Wood, collected from the Kumaon region of the western Himalayas was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Eighty constituents, accounting for 83.9 % of the total oil composition, were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by sesquiterpenoids (45.3 %) and benzenoid compounds (33.9 %). Among them, 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (32.2 %), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (14.7 %), β-caryophyllene (6.9 %) and caryophyllene oxide (5.4 %) were major components of the oil.
The Determinants of Trade Credit: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms  [PDF]
Rajendra R. Vaidya
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25079
Abstract: Trade credit (accounts receivable and accounts payable) is both an important source and use of funds for manufacturing firms in India. This paper empirically investigates the determinants of trade credit in the Indian context. The empirical evidence presented suggests that strong evidence exists in support of an inventory management motive for the existence of trade credit. Highly profitable firms both give and receive less trade credit. Firms with greater access to bank credit offer less trade credit to their customers. On the other hand, firms with higher bank loans receive more trade credit. Holdings of liquid assets have a positive influence on both accounts receivable and accounts payable.
Nonconscious processing and a novel target for schizophrenia research  [PDF]
Rajendra D. Badgaiyan
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.224047
Abstract: Analysis of the pattern of altered cognition observed in schizophrenia provides better insight into neurocognitive deficits. It reveals a potential novel target for schizophrenia research. To understand this target we reviewed the findings of neuroimaging studies on implicit [nonconscious] memory. These studies have consistently reported attenuated activity in the area V3A of the extrastriate cortex during retrieval of studied items. It was suggested that the attenuation limits the pool of information available for further cognitive processing. Therefore, if V3A is functionally damaged, individuals will have access to a larger pool of information for cognitive processing. Since cognitive tasks that are not dependent on attention [attention independent] process a larger pool of information more efficiently, performance in these tasks is likely to improve after V3A is damaged. Conversely, tasks that are dependent on attentional resources are more efficient in processing smaller pool of information. Performance in these tasks therefore is expected to deteriorate if a large pool of information is made available following V3A damage. A review of cognitive performance in schizophrenia suggests that patients perform at above normal level in attention independent priming tasks and perform at subnormal level in attention dependent episodic and working memory tasks. These findings indicate possible impairment of V3A activity. It could therefore be a potentially important unstudied target for schizophrenia research, particularly because a number of investigators have reported that the activity in this area is altered in schizophrenia.
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