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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 163 matches for " PG Oyibo "
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Out-of-pocket payment for health services: constraints and implications for government employees in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, South east Nigeria
PG Oyibo
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Each year, 100 million people are impoverished globally as a result of expenditure on health. Objective: To assess the constraints and implications of out-of-pocket payment for health services among government employees in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, south east Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study instrument was a pre-tested, semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: Over half of the respondents (62.8 %) reported a history of illness in their household in the preceding four weeks before the study. Sixty-nine percent of these respondents relied on out-of-pocket payment in order to pay for health services at the moment of seeking medical treatment for themselves or their dependants; while 28.4 % and 2.6 % relied on a prepayment package (National Health Insurance Scheme) and borrowed money respectively to pay for health services at the moment of seeking medical treatment for themselves or their dependants. The vast majority of respondents (63.6 %) who relied on out-of-pocket payment reported their difficulties in accessing quality health care services as a result of financial hardship at the moment of seeking medical treatment. Most of them (47.7 %) resolved to self medication, while 28.4 %, 17.1 % and 6.8 % of them delayed seeking health care, patronized herbalists and ignored their illness respectively. Conclusion: This study brings to the fore the fact that most government employees and their dependants in Abakaliki have difficulties in accessing quality health care services via paying for them out-of-pocket.
Efficacy of Single Dose Anthelminthic Treatment against Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis Among School Children in Selected Rural Communities in South East Nigeria
PG Oyibo, CJ Uneke, IA Oyibo
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Soil-transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis constitute a major public health problem in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single dose anthelminthic treatment against soil-transmitted helminthic infections and schistosomiasis among school children in Ebonyi State. Subjects and Methods: A school-based chemotherapeutic intervention study was conducted from September 2007 to January 2008 among five hundred and seventy-six primary school children selected by multistage sampling technique. The study was carried out in three distinct stages: pre-chemotherapeutic, chemotherapeutic and post-chemotherapeutic intervention stages. Selected children diagnosed as infected with the helminths investigated were treated. The efficacy of anthelminthic treatment was determined by helminth egg count at four, eight and sixteen weeks post-treatment. Results: Up to 38.5% of the children had at least one helminth infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the commonest STH encountered. The cure rate 4 weeks after the treatment of STH infection was lowest in Trichuris trichiura cases. At week 8 and week 16 there was a 100% cure rate for all the cases with STH infection. The egg reduction rate at weeks 8 and 16 was 100% for all the STH infection but ranged from 90.6% to 94.4% at week 16 for the S. haematobium infected cases. At week 16 following treatment, the cure rates for S. haematobium infection ranged from 70.8% to 74.0%. Conclusion: This study has shown the efficacy of single dose anthelminthic treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis among school-age children. Journal of Community Medicine & Primary Health vol 23 (1-2) 2011
The status of tuberculosis infection control measures in health care facilities rendering joint TB/ HIV services in “German Leprosy and Tuberculosis Relief Association” supported states in Nigeria
LU Ogbonnaya, JN Chukwu, KA Uwakwe, PG Oyibo, CD Ndukwe
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To assess the status of tuberculosis (TB) infection control practice in health care facilities implementing joint TB/HIV activities. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey triangulating self-administered questionnaire (facility survey to Infection Control Officer, individual health worker to general health workers), review of facility case notes and participant observation techniques was carried out. Twelve health facilities from southern Nigeria were assessed. Results: (1) Administrative and work practice control measure: Only 1 (8.3%) facility had a documented TB Infection control policy; 2 (16.7%) facilities had Infection Control Committee; 5 (41.7%) facilities had Infection Control Officer; 2 (16.7%) asked questions at the health records about cough; 1 (8.3%) facility had health workers intermittently checking for patients with cough in the waiting hall; and 2 (16.7%) facilities had Infection Control Officers who have attended some training on infection control. No facility had Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials reminding patients and health workers of the possibility of TB transmission in the health care setting. While 86.4% of TB patients were screened for HIV, only 54.7% of HIV patients were tested for TB. (2) Environmental control measures: All the waiting halls were well ventilated. Though 66.7% of the consulting rooms were well ventilated, 25% of them were over crowded; 58.3% of the facilities managed sputum smear positive TB patients in the same ward with HIV-positive and other vulnerable patients; no facility had air cleaners. Conclusion: Implementation of the different aspects of the administrative control and work practice component of TB infection control measure range from 8.3% to 41.7% of the facilities. Urgent measures should be taken to reverse this trend in the face of TB burden due to HIV.
Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Compression on the Petro-Physical and Micromechanical Properties of Wellbore Cement Containing Salt  [PDF]
Arome Oyibo, Mileva Radonjic
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2016.63006
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of compression on the micromechanical and the petro- physical properties of salted wellbore cement systems. The experiments were conducted using a customized bench scale model, which utilized an expandable tubulars simulating the compression of a previously cemented casing under field-like conditions. The “mini-wellbore model” sample consisted of a pipe inside pipe assembly with a cemented annulus. The cement samples were cured in a water bath for 28 days prior to the compression experiments to allow adequate hydration. The impact of compression on the cement’s petro-physical and mechanical properties was quantified by measuring the porosity, permeability and hardness of salt cement cores drilled parallel to the orientation of the pipe from the compacted cement sheath. Permeability (Core-flood) experiments were conducted at 21℃, 10,342 kPa confining pressure for a period of 120 minutes. During the core-flood experiments, conducted using Pulse-decay method, deionized water was flowed through cement cores to determine the permeability of the cores. The results obtained from these experiments confirmed that the compression of the cement positively impacted the cements ability to provide long term zonal isolation, shown by the effective reduction in porosity and permeability. Furthermore, the results confirm reduction in the detrimental effect of salt on the strength and stiffness in post-compression cement.
Administration of Levothyroxine 45 - 60 Minutes before Breakfast Improves Biochemical Availability as Evidenced by Reduced Thyrotropin Levels  [PDF]
Shivshankar Seechurn, Sanjeev Sharma, Samson Oyibo
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2012.23005
Abstract: Introduction: Serum Thyrotropin (TSH) level is used to assess adequacy of levothyroxine dosing for patients with hypothyroidism. Some patients have raised TSH levels despite being on an adequate dose of levothyroxine (100 mcg/day - 200 mcg/day). Aim: To evaluated the effect of advising patients to take their levothyroxine 45 - 60 minutes before breakfast on raised serum TSH levels. Patients and Methods: Rather than increase the dose, patients with raised TSH levels were asked to take their levothyroxine at least 45 - 60 minutes before breakfast and other oral medications. Thyroid Function Tests were assessed at base line and repeated after two months. Results: Data from ten patients who presented between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed (9 females, 1 male): With median (IQR) age: 39 (33 - 49) years and duration of hypothyroidism: 6 (3 - 7.8) years. Median (IQR) levothyroxine dose was 175 (144 - 250) mcg, serum free-Thyroxine (free-T4): 13 (10.5 - 17.1) pmol/L and serum TSH: 12.63 (6.2 - 48.3) mIU/L. After two months all patients demonstrated biochemical improvement; a decrease in serum TSH to 3.15 (0.4 - 6.1) mIU/L accompanied by an increase in serum free-T4 to 17.7 (14.8 - 21.3) pmol/L. Both changes were statistically significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The median (IQR) percentage TSH reduction was 83.5 (40.3 - 95.8) mIU/L and this bore no significant correlation with the initial TSH level (rs = 0.2, p = 0.58). Conclusion: Changing levothyroxine administration to 45 - 60 minutes before breakfast and other oral medications reduced TSH levels by 40% - 96% in all patients. We recommend this advice for all patients with hypothyroidism on adequate doses of levothyroxine but still appear biochemically under-replaced.
Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits Detection of Malaria Parasites among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal in Selected Hospitals in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Clement Ameh Yaro, Florence Oyibo Iyaji, Michael Obanogbon Tope
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2017.88018
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the status of malaria in four (4) selected hospitals in Anyigba, Dekina Local Government Area, Kogi State. A total of 300 pregnant women attending antenatal were tested for malaria parasite using rapid diagnostic test kits. Blood samples were obtained from finger by pricking and tested for malaria parasites. Structured questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women to obtain relevant information on the clinical and social aspects of malaria. A prevalence of 13.0% (39 women) was observed among pregnant women in Anyigba. Grimard Hospital and Egume General Hospital had the highest prevalence of 14.7% each; Maria Goretti Hospital had a prevalence of 13.3%, while KSUTH had the least prevalence of 9.3%. Age prevalence revealed that women with age < 20 years had the highest prevalence of 29.4% which was significant (p > 0.05) from the other age categories. Unemployed and women in their second trimester had the highest prevalence of 17.1% and 16.0% respectively. On the gravidity of the pregnant women, primigravidae (21.9%) was higher than multigravidae (10.6%) significantly (p < 0.05). Women from a polygamous family had a prevalence of 15.2% higher than those from monogamous family with a prevalence of 12.4%. The findings of this study revealed that malaria continues to exert significant public health and economic burden among pregnant women in parts of Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State. Continuous efforts at providing necessary information by relevant health organizations are needed to control and reduce incidence of malaria in this area.
Simultaneous reconstructive surgery for radical mastectomy
PG Robb
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1214
Abstract: The increased use of postmastectomy radiation therapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer has increased the complexity of planning for immediate breast reconstruction. Studies have evaluated the outcomes of breast reconstruction performed before radiation therapy, revealing a high incidence of complications and poor aesthetic outcomes [3]. Moreover, immediate breast reconstruction can interfere with the delivery of postmastectomy radiation therapy. Multidisciplinary breast conference identification of early breast cancer patients at high risk for radiation therapy has evolved a unique and highly successful 'delayed immediate' reconstruction [4] approach that preserves the aesthetic outcomes of immediate reconstruction and avoids radiation injury to the reconstructive tissues. This is accomplished by utilizing a filled subpectoral tissue expander to temporarily preserve the breast skin envelope until the final tissue pathology is confirmed and the patient either goes on to definitive reconstruction or to radiation therapy with the expander deflated. A total of 28 high-risk early breast cancer patients have undergone the delayed immediate approach with 20 patients (71%) not ultimately requiring radiation therapy. Nineteen patients in the non-radiated group (95%) have now completed definitive reconstruction, primarily with the use of autologous tissues. The eight patients who required radiation have completed the radiation therapy and six (75%) have undergone tissue re-expansion and skin-preserving delayed reconstruction designed to be as similar in outcome to immediate reconstruction as possible. The complication rate for the initial expander placement at the time of mastectomy was 18% for all patients. Five nonradiated patients (25%) had complications in the second stage of definitive reconstruction and one patient (17%) following radiation therapy had complications in the skin-preserving delayed reconstruction.Finally, following the successful experience of t
The Nile river question and the Riparian States: Contextualising Uganda's Foreign Policy Interests
PG Okoth
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2007,
Abstract:
The tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer: elucidating molecular pathways for therapy development
Corn PG
Cancer Management and Research , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S32839
Abstract: umor microenvironment in prostate cancer: elucidating molecular pathways for therapy development Review (2185) Total Article Views Authors: Corn PG Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 183 - 193 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S32839 Received: 11 April 2012 Accepted: 02 May 2012 Published: 25 July 2012 Paul G Corn Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Mechanisms leading to the development of virulent prostate cancer are not confined to the cancer epithelial cell, but also involve the tumor microenvironment. Multiple signaling pathways exist between epithelial cells, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix to support tumor progression from the primary site to regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. Prostate cancers preferentially metastasize to the skeleton, prompting considerable research effort into understanding the unique interaction between prostate cancer epithelial cells and the bone microenvironment. This effort has led to the discovery that signaling pathways involved in normal prostate and bone development become dysregulated in cancer. These pathways stimulate excessive cell growth and neovascularization, impart more invasive properties to epithelial cells, weaken antitumor immune surveillance, and promote the emergence of castrate-resistant disease. An improved understanding of the complex relationship between cancer epithelial cells and the organ-specific microenvironments with which they interact has created a powerful opportunity to develop novel therapies.
Endoscopic Ultrasonography: Impact in Diagnosis, Staging and Management of Pancreatic Tumors. An Overview
Arcidiacono PG
JOP Journal of the Pancreas , 2004,
Abstract:
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