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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 351383 matches for " P.G. Bille "
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Examining the need for the use of calcium chloride in the processing of Gouda cheese made from pasteurised milk.
P.G. Bille, P. Hiwelepo, E.L. Keya
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2001,
Abstract: Two samples of Gouda cheese were made in triplicate; one without and the other with the addition of 5 grams of calcium chloride per 100 litres of pasteurised milk and compared in terms of their proximate composition (moisture, acid, ash, butter fat and protein contents) and sensory properties (appearance, texture, taste and smell). It was observed that the addition of calcium chloride to pasteurised milk in cheese making promoted greater curd firming and whey expulsion which produced a firmer textured cheese with a drier appearance, lower in moisture content and acidity , but higher in ash, butter fat and protein contents. Most of the sensory panellists, however, preferred the cheese without added calcium chloride as it had a better taste and smell and was softer, more pliable and tender to eat. It was shown that the addition of calcium chloride to pasteurised milk for cheese making was important for marketing, especially when it was desirable to make Gouda cheese with firm appearance and texture which was inevitably linked to higher nutrient content in the final cheese. The addition of calcium chloride however adversely affected the flavour of the cheese and reduced preference for it, especially when a softer textured, more tender Gouda cheese was desired. On storage, the cheese without added calcium chloride, developed greater acidity and harshness in taste giving it a shorter shelf life. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 Number 2 (April-June 2001), pp. 44-47
A Comparison of Some Properties of Vat-Heated and Dry Skim Milk Powder Fortified Set Yoghurts
P.G. Bille, E.L. Keya
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2002,
Abstract: Some properties, namely; viscosity, flavour, acidity, texture, aroma and palatability of cultured yoghurt made from milk previously heated to 90OC for 30 minutes in a Vat were studied and the results compared to those of yoghurt fortified by addition of dry skim milk powder. The results showed no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two types of yoghurt regarding viscosity, and syneresis during the first 4 days, after which the yoghurt fortified with dry skim milk powder, tended to whey off, becoming grainy in texture, declining in viscosity and developing high acidity (2.0 to 2.5 % LA). A t-test analysis (p < 0.05) indicated that the two kinds of yoghurt were similar on average. Panellists however, found the fortified yoghurt harsher and inferior in flavour. Sensory evaluation indicated that on average, the unfortified sample of yoghurt made from milk preheated to 90O C for 30 minutes was superior. Besides, the cost of adding extra solids to the fortified yoghurt made it 4.5% more expensive which was discouraging to the ordinary consumers. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 7 No.1, 2002, pp. 21-23
The suitability of locally produced milk for human consumption: Investigations into quantity, composition and quality profiles of milk at Njoro, Kenya
P.G. Bille, M. Ahamed, V. Othiambo, E.L. Keya
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2001,
Abstract: The basic premise of this paper is that the supply of milk and milk products from the Guildford Dairy Institute (GDI) at Egerton University (EU) in Kenya decreased drastically over the recent past as a result of a nearly six-fold increase in the human population in the area. A drop of 40 % of milk production from the university farms also added more impetus to the study. These developments resulted in a significant shortfall of milk to the GDI factory for processing and for sale to the university and surrounding communities. The results of the study carried out at some randomly selected neighbouring farms as possible source of additional milk to GDI factory showed 3.8 ± 0.5 % BF, 12.6 ± 0.8 % TS, 0.16 ± 0.02 LA, 1.029 ± 0.003 Sp Gr; - 0.55 ± 0.02 Fr Pt; 0.03 ± 0.004 Fg Pb and 0.04 ± 0.003 ppm Hg and sensory results indicated 'Liked Moderately' for all samples, which were within the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KBS) guidelines. Milk was available but the logistics to collect and pay for the milk need to be put in place. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 Number 2 (April-June 2001), pp. 41-43
Influence of the Growth Stage of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) on Fatty Acid Content, Chemical Composition and Gross Energy
P.G. Peiretti
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been studied to determine the Fatty Acid (FA) content, chemical composition and Gross Energy (GE) of the plant during growth. Herbage samples were collected 4 times at progressive morphological stages from the mid vegetative to the early flower stage. The most abundant FA in the plant during these growth stages was α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and it ranged between 48-54% of the total FA. The FA analyses disclosed quantitative differences between the plant stages. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) and linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) decreased with increasing growth stage. There was a lack of γ-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) at all stages of the hemp plant during growth. The dry matter, organic matter and acid detergent lignin content increased with increasing growth stage, while the ash and crude protein decreased from the mid vegetative stage to the shooting and late vegetative stage, respectively. Neutral detergent fibre increased from the first to the third stages and then decreased. GE was higher at the shooting stage than at the other stages.
Ensilability Characteristics and Silage Fermentation of Galega (Galega officinalis L.)
P.G. Peiretti
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Galega (Galega officinalis L.) is one of the least investigated perennial leguminous herbs. It is usually present in natural pastures, grazed by animals, in Mediterranean areas and in the Italian Alps and Apennines below 1000 m. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the stage of maturity on the ensilability characteristics and to evaluate the fermentation quality of silage produced from first cut and regrowth of G. officinalis in the Po valley, northern Italy. The growth of G. officinalis was characterised by a rapid Dry Matter (DM) accumulation in the herbage during development and the DM content increased from 111-157 g kg-1 Fresh Matter (FM), while at the regrowth stage it was 180 g kg-1 FM. No significant changes were observed in the pH or Water Soluble Carbohydrates (WSC) content. The Buffering Capacity (BC) was lower at the regrowth than at the other three first cut stages, while Total Nitrogen (TN) and Soluble Nitrogen (SN) were low at the budding stage. Three types of silage without additives, wilted silage 1 day after wilting at the budding stage, wilted silage 2 days after wilting at the budding stage and wilted silage 1 day after wilting at the regrowth stage were prepared to investigate the effects of wilting on the chemical composition and characterstics of silage fermentation. The results of ensiling indicate that the fermentation of pure G. officinalis is characterized by the presence of alcohol and acetic acid and a lack of lactic acid and butyric acid. The good results obtained in lab-scale silos would seem to suggest that G. officinalis has the potential for large scale ensiling, if galega is harvested at the budding stage or during regrowth and then wilted to a DM level of >350 g kg-1 FM.
Prevalence of malocclusion in 14-year old Greek children using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI).
P.G. Hatzopoulos
Hellenic Orthodontic Review , 1999,
Abstract: The aim of this epidemiological investigation was to study malocclusion in the 14-year old population nationwide. The orthodontic index DAI was chosen as a measurement means. The DAI is proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The use of the DAI has the advantage of grading malocclusion, thus providing with the possibility of objectively assessing the priorities for orthodontic treatment care. The study included a random and representative sample of 4451 pupils (3% of the corresponding total schoolchildren population) from the 9 health districts (H.D.) of Greece. 488 pupils were excluded because they did not fulfill the study criteria (they had either completed or were undergoing active orthodontic treatment). The selection of schools - sampling points (s.p.) was performed with a special computer program using the method of random numbers. The total number of sampling points nationwide was 24. The number of sampling points and pupils per H.D. was determined based on the WHO regulations and the sampling methodology. A permanent examiner - the author - performed all examinations. Based on the DAI criteria, 52.53% of the pupils presented varying degrees of malocclusion. This value is in agreement with similar studies performed in the USA and 10 other countries using the same index. The highest percentage of malocclusion was found in the 8th H.D. "Aegean Islands" and the lowest in the 6th H.D. "East Macedonia". Percentages for orthodontic treatment of medium, high and very high resulting from the DAI scale are 28.2, 9.84 and 14.49 respectively. Although the percentage of orthodontic treatment need is the same for both sexes, the percentage of girls who received orthodontic treatment was twice that of boys. Orthodontic treatment care in pupils of private schools was four times that of pupils in public schools.
Opportunities of bank anti-crisis communications in the sphere of interactions with external parties
P.G. Bortnikov
Marketing ì Mened?ment Innovacìj , 2011,
Abstract: The management of banking institutions should be prepared for crisis situations. The bank must deploy different forms and channels of communication depending on the situation of the bank and in banking sector. Anti-crisis communication can be broadly divided into traditional and nontraditional, in communication with market participants (counterparties, rating agencies), regulators and customers of the bank. The effectiveness of communication manifests in restoring confidence in the bank by market and extinction of panic.
A report on the trio Indians of Surinam
P.G. Riviere
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1981,
Abstract:
A policy for the trio Indians of Surinam
Riviere P.G.
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1966,
Abstract:
The encyclopedia of arthropod-transmitted infections, M.W. Service (Ed) : book review
P.G. Howell
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v74i1.495
Abstract:
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