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Association of Critically Endangered Bengal Florican with other bird species in two sites of Manas, Assam, India
Namita Brahma,P.C. Bhattacharjee,B. P. Lahkar
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Birds and animals group together for diverse benefits, including anti-predator, foraging, and reproductive advantages. Present study is aimed to know association of Bengal florican with other bird species found in two different habitats, one is natural and other human intervened based on association analysis in Manas National Park and understand potential benefits derived from these associations. This study was carried out in two site one in natural habitat of Bengal florican Kuribeel inside Manas National Park and other one in Koklabari Agricultural Farm outside Manas National Park which is man made habitat. Study was conducted from morning 0530 - 1000 hrs and afternoon 1500 hrs - 1700 hrs in 100 m radius circular plots, centre on the interactions of 50 m by 50 m regular grid in Bengal florican territories. Fourteen bird species found to associate with Bengal florican, of which nine species in Kuribeel, and thirteen species of birds in Koklabari seed farm. From association analysis, it is found that Bengal florican had stronger interspecific associations with Indian peafowl in the natural habitat (Kuribeel). However, in Kokalabari seed farm Bengal florican was found to associate with Red wattle lapwing. In this study, association strengths of Bengal florican with other bird species follow different trends in the two study sites.
Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients
Calder, P.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2003000400004
Abstract: lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). in turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. these compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. there is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. one alternative is the use of fish oil. the rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. when fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like pge2 and of leukotrienes like ltb4. thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. these effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.
Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Calder, P.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000400002
Abstract: 1. fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 pufa linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin e2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. this changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, t-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class ii expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor) and adhesion molecule expression. 4. feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 pufas may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.
Manejo de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis no plantio direto de milho
Timossi, P.C.;
Planta Daninha , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582009000100022
Abstract: total weed control is not always possible under no-till desiccation leading to perennial and increased number of weeds. in no-till cultivation areas with predominant occurrence of digitaria insularis sprouts, nicosulfuron alone (60 g ha-1) and in tank mix with atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1), foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1) and mesotrione in tank mix with atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1) were tested in a randomized block design, with four replications. each plot was 6 x 4 m, containing six corn culture rows. the herbicides were applied with a back spray at a constant pressure of 30 lbf pol-2, using 200 l ha-1 solution. herbicide efficacy and toxicity were evaluated at 7, 15 and 30 days after application. during harvest, reinfesting plant cover and its degree of mechanized harvest were assessed, as well as culture yield. it can be inferred that the best control of d. insularis sprouts was obtained with nicosulfuron alone at 60 g ha-1.
Johannes Calvyn oor gebedsverhoring
P.C Potgieter
Acta Theologica , 2005,
Abstract: Calvin has written extensively on prayer, not only in his Institutes, but also in his commentaries, sermons and letters. His views in this regard have been reflected in a substantial number of publications by various Calvin scholars. This article particularly researches his views on God’s answering of prayer, on which relatively little has been published yet. Some of Calvin’s views in this regard may be debatable — for instance his huge and often repeated emphasis on repentance as primary element of prayer, and his view that in delaying his answer to our prayers God is exercising us in patience. On the other hand he has said much that may currently be of significant importance for theology, and particularly for the pastoral care of the faithful in their search for understanding the ways of God.
Changes in number and distribution of hippoptamus {Hippopotamus amphibius) in the Sabie River, Kruger National Park, during the 1992 drought
P.C Viljoen
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1995, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v38i2.320
Abstract: The 1991/92 drought in Southern Africa and the effect of the resultant reduced flow of the Sabie River on hippopotami was investigated. Hippopotami are counted annually in the Kruger National Park's (KNP) major rivers as part of the park's monitoring pro- gramme. Two additional aerial surveys were conducted to document changes in hippopotamus population densities in the Sabie River during the drought period. The hippopotamus population decreased during the drought by 12.6 to 672 animals between July 1991 and October 1992. The highest and lowest hippopotamus densities recorded were 11.6 and 2.2 animals/km river length respectively in different river sections. Only 12 hippopotamus mortalities were recorded at the end of the 1992 dry season (October).
The didactic nature of Calvin’s De Scandalis
P.C. Potgieter
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v74i4.141
Abstract: In this article the author explores the didactic nature and value of Calvin’s “De Scandalis” (1550). The reformer’s clear intention was to provide guidelines for strengthening those believers grappling with all kinds of stumbling blocks on the Christian’s path towards sanctification. Moreover, the questions that he attempted to answer are questions of faith even in the 21st century. It is argued that sound didactic principles are found throughout this publication of Calvin’s. For that reason it was – and still is – a powerful aid to those belonging to the church of Christ in dealing with the obstacles and temptations that they may experience in their spiritual lives: Biblical truths that the world may regard as foolishness; offensive and scandalous conduct by people within the church; and calumnies brought forward by adversaries of the gospel. In this context Calvin proves himself to be the catechist par excellence and an enduring example of the conscientious teacher living by the principles of Holy Scripture.
War narratives in the book of Chronicles: A new proposal in respect of their function
P.C. Beentjes
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v59i3.665
Abstract: Research has shown that the majority of the narratives on war in the book of Chronicles have been created by the Chronicler himself. This article offers a fresh proposal that war narratives in the book of Chronicles are to be read and explained as a reflection of the factual military impotence of Yehud during the Persian period. This military weakness has been transformed into a theological concept in which it is God who wages war in favour of the people seeking God. The outcome of these divine actions depends on the people of Judah’s attitude, whether they “seek the Lord” or “abandon the Lord”. Therefore, these war narratives should not be traced back to the concept of holy war.
Problems Relating to hydrology, water conservation, erosion control, reforestation and agriculture in Curacao
P.C. Henriquez
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1962,
Abstract:
An Analysis of the Impact of Fadama III Project on Poverty Alleviation in Delta State, Nigeria
P.C. Ike
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study specifically sought to determine the average income of Fadama user and non Fadama user households based on their crop, livestock and off-farm activities as relating to project implementation and also the proportion of the Fadama user households attaining the observed average income. 152 participating households in Fadama III Project and 50 non participating households were randomly selected for this study. Data were collected by well trained enumerators through the use of well structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed through the use of Descriptive and Inferential statistical tools. The Double-Difference (DD) Estimator was used to compare changes in outcome measures. Findings indicate that average age of the respondents was 52.4 years while 54.95% were males and about 68% were married with 20% possessing no formal education. (73.71%) of the respondents have household sizes ranging from 4 to 10 members. The average per capita income of the Fadama user households before the project implementation was N62,480.00 while that of the Fadama III non beneficiaries was N63,572.00. On the average, the real income of Fadama III beneficiaries increased by about 36.67% (From N62, 480.00 to N85,391.42) as a result of participation in the project. By contrast however, average real income of Fadama III non beneficiaries increased only by 11.6% from N63,572.00 to N73,743.52. The mean increase in income for participants in Fadama III was significantly different from that of non participants at p = 0.05. Appropriate policy to ensure proper education of rural populace is advocated.
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