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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 585955 matches for " P.A. Abdu "
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Case Report: Atresia of the Left Oviduct and Anormaly of the Caecum of a 12 Month Old Layer
M.H. Sulaiman,L. Saidu,P.A. Abdu
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2010.39.42
Abstract: This study describe a rare case of congenital defects involving the atresia of the left oviduct with the accompanying abnormalities of ovaries and caecum observed in a 12 month old layer presented to the Avian Ambulatory Clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. At post mortem, a thin wall oviduct measuring 18 cm long which opens into the cloaca was noticed while the left oviduct was completely absent. In addition the right hypolastic oviduct had a large cyst with a morphometric measurement of 18 cm by 14 cm by 7 cm and containing 1.25 L of clear non proteinous fluid, weighing 1.01 kg. When the cystic fluid was cultured in blood agar at 37°C for 72 h, no bacteria colony growth was observed. However, biochemical analysis revealed a composition of electrolytes. The bird also had undeveloped ovaries, malformed illeocaecal junction cranially measuring 6.5 cm.
Atresia of the Left Oviduct and Abnormality of the Caecum of a 12-month-old Layer:A Case Report
M.H. Sulaiman,L. Saidu,P.A. Abdu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: This report describe a rare case of congenital defects involving the atresia of the left oviduct with the accompanying abnormalities of ovaries and caecum observed in a 12-month-old layer presented to the Avian Ambulatory Clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. At post mortem, a thin wall oviduct measuring 18 cm long, which opens into the cloaca, was noticed, while the left oviduct was completely absent. In addition the right hypolastic oviduct had a large cyst, with a morphometric measurement of 18 cm by 14 cm by 7 cm and containing 1.25 litres of clear non proteinous fluid, weighing 1.01 kg. When the cystic fluid was cultured in blood agar, at 37oC for 72 h, no bacteria colony growth was observed. However biochemical analysis revealed a composition of electrolytes. The bird also had undeveloped ovaries, malformed illeocaecal junction cranially measuring 6.5 cm. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of congenital abnormalities of the atresia of the left oviduct, malformed caecum and hypoplastic right oviduct in ISA-Brown layer bird in Nigeria.
Changes in weight gain, faecal oocyst count and packed cell volume of Eimeria tenella-infected broilers treated with a wild mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) aqueous extract : article
A.O. Ogbe,S.E. Atawodi,P.A. Abdu,A. Sannusi
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v80i2.179
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of a wild Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract in coccidian-infected broilers. At 6 weeks of age the birds were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups of 20 Ross broilers each in wire cages. Groups A, B and C were infected with Eimeria tenella Houghton strain at the rate of 36 250 sporulated oocysts/m per bird. Theremaining 3 groups D, E and F were uninfected controls. At 7 weeks the birds in group A were treated with G. lucidum aqueous extract and those in B with amprolium in drinking water ad libitum at the rate of 200 mg/m each for 7 days consecutively. Body weight gain, feed intake, faecal oocyst output and some haematological parameters were monitored. The result showed that all the infected birds in groups A, B and Chad clinical signs of weakness and reduced appetite on day 4 post-infection. By the 5th day post-infection their faeces became bloody and watery, and large numbers of E. tenella oocysts were present in the faeces. On day 3 after treatment the oocysts detected were considerably reduced in both treated groups A and B and slightly higher in the untreated group C. The faeces of the uninfected control groups were normal and free of coccidial oocysts. After treatment for 7 days no coccidial oocysts were found in faeces of the birds that had been treated. Infected, untreated birds showed a slight drop in feed intake and weight gain from 7 to 8 weeks of age. The final mean weight gain recorded in the treated groups A and B was comparable to that of the uninfected birds in the 3 control groups, while it was lower in the untreated group C. The feed to gain ratio was higher in C than in the other groups. A slight drop in packed cell volume was observed in groups A, B and C at 7 weeks of age, 1 week after infection. This study showed that treatment with G. lucidum results in a marked reduction in the number of E. tenella oocysts shed in the faeces, leading to improved weight gain and decreased weight loss. The results confirmed the virulence of the Houghton strain of E. tenella and the effectiveness of both amprolium and G. lucidum extract against E. tenella.
Semen Characteristics of Vaccinated Shikabrown Cocks Challenged with a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus
J.S. Rwuaan,P.I. Rekwot,P.A. Abdu,L.O. Eduvie
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Twenty-five cocks consisting of 14 red and 11 white Shikabrown cocks selected on the basis of body weight and antibody titres were infected with 0.2 ml of 106.0 EID50 of a velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and intraocularly. Twenty-five cocks consisting of 14 red and 11 white Shikabrown cocks served as controls. Cloacal temperatures, live weights and semen samples of both control and infected cocks were taken weekly for six weeks. Semen was collected by abdominal message and evaluated for volume, colour, motility, concentration, percent live spermatozoa and percent total spermatozoa abnormalities. The semen volume of infected red cocks showed a general increase over that of control red cocks. The semen volume of the control white Shikabrown cocks was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the infected white cocks. The white Shikabrown cocks had higher semen volume than the red Shikabrown cocks. The red Shikabrown cocks had slightly better semen colour than the white Shikabrown cocks. The control white cocks had better (p<0.05) spermatozoa motility than the infected white cocks, while the infected red cocks had significantly (p<0.05) spermatozoa motility than the control red cocks. Generally, the white Shikabrown cocks had better spermatozoa motility than the red cocks. The spermatozoa concentration of the control white cocks was consistently higher than that of the infected white cocks; the reverse was the case with the red cocks where the spermatozoa concentration of the infected red cocks was higher than that of the control red cocks. The white cocks had higher spermatozoa concentration than the red cocks. The control white Shikabrown cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the infected white cocks. The infected red Shikabrown cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the control red cocks. The control white cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the control red cocks. The infected red and white Shikabrown cocks had higher percentage total spermatozoa abnormalities than the control red and white cocks. It can be concluded from this study that the white Shikabrown cocks had better semen quality than the red Shikabrown cocks. It is recommended that breeder cocks be routinely vaccinated against Newcastle disease to ensure that the level of antibodies is high enough to prevent adverse effects on semen quality.
Effects of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus on Packed Cell Volume, Total Protein and Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titres of Vaccinated Shikabrown Cocks
J.S. Rwuaan,P.I. Rekwot,P.A. Abdu,L.O. Eduvie
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of the infected red and white cocks. This finding showed that the challenged red and white cocks had high antibody titres and a slight drop in packed cell volume. The mean antibody titres of 1.9 ±0.7 to 4.6 ±0.4 log2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.
Surveillance for Avian Influenza H5 Antibodies and Viruses in Commercial Chicken Farms in Kano State, Nigeria
A.M. Wakawa,P.A. Abdu,S.B. Oladele,L. Sa’idu
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Outbreaks of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza occurred previously for 3 consecutive years, 2006, 2007 and 2008, in Kano State, Nigeria, causing heavy economic losses to farmers and the government. It was against this background that Avian Influenza (AI) surveillance study in commercial poultry farms in the State was conducted. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was conducted to determine the presence of AI H5 antibodies in 1,160 sera obtained from flocks in 33 Avian influenza affected (AF) and 25 Non Avian influenza-affected (NAF) farms. To complement the study, 320 cloacal swabs obtained from flocks in farms that were serologically positive for AI H5antibodies, were further subjected to Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), to determine if the chickens were shedding AI viruses. Of the 1,160 sera tested, 150 (12.9%) were positive for AI H5 antibodies, with flocks in 16 (27.6%) of the farms being positive. Prevalence rates of 14.1 and 11.4% and mean antibody titres of 5.4±0.2 and 4.6±0.1 log2 for AI H5 antibodies were obtained for AF and NAF farms, respectively. The RT-PCR results showed that all the 320 cloacal swabs tested were negative for AI H5 viruses. The antibodies detected between flocks in the AF and NAF farms might be attributed to vaccination and the titres determined were above the minimum protection level recommended by the OIE. It was recommended that vaccination of chickens against AI should be discouraged because it may interfere with the stamping out policy adopted by Nigeria in the control and eradication of the disease.
Impact of Avian Influenza in Some States of Nigeria
L. Saidu,A.M. Wakawa,P.A. Abdu,D.F. Adene
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: Cases of Avian Influenza (AI) outbreaks reported and confirmed were extracted from the records of control committees on AI in Kano and Katsina States, Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Pan-African Control of Epizootics (PACE) project office at Kaduna. Information on Al outbreaks in Jigawa State were obtained through a questionnaire. A total of 480,378 birds were lost in 34 outbreaks in the four states under study between the period of January and March 2006. Chickens accounted for more than 99% of all the birds affected followed by guinea fowls and turkeys. More than 60% of the birds affected were adults. The concentrations of poultry farms in Kano metropolis particularly along Gwarzo road where the epidemic was first noticed might have been responsible for the fast spread of the disease within Kano metropolis. It is a common practice to find geese, muscovey ducks and turkeys in one farm in the study area. This practice makes the chickens and turkeys more prone to the disease. From the tract of outbreaks It is possible that the disease spread from Jigawa State to Kano state and from Kano State to other States in the study area and other parts of the country through trade in live birds and poultry by products. For proper diagnosis and control of AI in Nigeria, poultry farmers should be educated on the necessity for prompt disease reporting to veterinarians and appropriate authorities.
Newcastle Disease Antibodies in Parent Stock, Yolk and Chicks
L. Sa’idu,P.A. Abdu,L.B. Tekdek
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Parent stock, Yolk and chicks from five commercial hatcheries at Zaria and Kaduna were evaluated for antibodies to Newcastle disease ( ND ). The ND vaccination history and the age (s) of the breeders were found out from the hatcheries. Haemmagglutination inhibition (HI) test was used for the detection and quantification of antibodies (AB) to ND in the parent stock, yolk and in the day old chicks. The HI titre of each bird, yolk and chick was determined and expressed in log 2 and the mean titres for the parent stock, yolk and chicks were calculated. The ages of the parent stock ranged from 30 weeks for hatchery A to 95 weeks for hatchery B, all the hatcheries used to administer ND vaccine Hitchner B1 ( intra ocular ) at day old, La Sota at 3 -5 weeks, Komorov at 6-8 weeks and another dose of komorov at 16 - 18 weeks. There after the birds were given booster ND vaccination using ND La Sota vaccine or killed oil emulsion Komorov vaccine The HI.AB titre for the parent stock ranged from 5.8 ± 1.6 to 7.6 ±1.6 log 2 and the titre for the egg also ranged from 5.1 ± 0.9 to 6.2 ± 1.7 log 2. The HI titre for the chick ranged from 3.4 ± 1.4 to 5.3 ± 1.1 log2 at 1day (d) old and it declines to a lowest value of 1.1 ± 1.2 log 2 at 28d. The study shows that all the parent stock had protective AB titre (5.8 ± 1.6 to 7.6 ± 1.6 ) and there is a correlation between the AB titre in the serum of the parent stock and that of the yolk. The AB titre in the chicks declines to non-protective level (1.5 ± 1.1 log 2) at 14 d. It was concluded that although the titres of the parent stock is within protective level, it is still low and that the yolk of fertile eggs can be used to determine the AB titre of the parent stock.
Awareness, Knowledge, Readiness to Report Outbreak and Biosecurity Practices Towards Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Kogi State, Nigeria
O.N. Ameji,P.A. Abdu,L. Sa`idu,J. Kabir
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2012,
Abstract: Kogi state did not report Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) during the 2006-2008 outbreaks in Nigeria despite the presence of favorable factors for the occurrence of the disease. A survey was conducted among stakeholders using structured questionnaires to determine the level of awareness, knowledge and readiness to report outbreak of HPAI and biosecurity practices in Kogi state, Nigeria. Awareness was 100% but knowledge of HPAI was low (9.1%). Readiness to report HPAI outbreak to relevant authorities was high (75.3%) but about 20% of respondents were not ready to report to any authority. Biosecurity practices evaluated by the presence of movement control was 38.8%; presence of footbath was rare (11.8%); handling of sick birds by isolation and treatment was 40%; improper disposal of dead birds in refuse dump was high (85.9%) and extensive management system was high (60.76%). The study revealed high level of awareness and readiness to report HPAI but poor knowledge and biosecurity practices towards it. The failures in biosecurity measures as seen in this study will greatly enhance introduction and spread of HPAI as well as other contagious poultry diseases in the state. Knowledge directly affects readiness to report hence efforts should be made to improve poultry stakeholders’ knowledge of HPAI and proper biosecurity practices.
Seroprevalence, Seasonal Occurrence and Clinical Manifestation of Newcastle Disease in Rural Household Chickens in Plateau State, Nigeria
U. Musa,P.A. Abdu,I.I. Dafwang,J.U. Umoh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: A study on seroprevalence, seasonal occurrence and clinical manifestation of Newcastle Disease Virus (ND) among rural household chickens and Live Birds Markets (LBM) was conducted using haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) and questionnaires. A total of 1, 208 chickens reared under extensive management system in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Plateau State were used for the study. The seroprevalence of ND virus antibodies in rural chickens showed that there was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference among the four LGAs and of the 1,208 sera tested, 51.9% had detectable antibodies to NDV but only 14.1% of the chickens had HI antibody titre of > 4log2 which was considered as protective. About 86.2% of the chickens sampled were at risk of suffering from clinical ND. Newcastle disease outbreaks occurred year round in the villages sampled with the highest incidence of 86.6% observed from November to March (Dry season) and September to October, 8.31% (Pre-dry season). During outbreaks of ND, infected birds exhibit the following major clinical signs; nervous signs (32.4%), weakness (16.6%), whitish/greenish diarrhea (16.2%), coughing/sneezing 13.6%, anorexia 9.39% and others 11.8%. It was concluded that the prevalence of ND in the four LGAs of Plateau State is high. At the time of the study over 80% of rural chickens in Plateau State were at risk of dying from ND when exposed to a virulent NDV. It is therefore recommended that vaccination and improved management practices as a means of prevention against ND before the period of outbreaks should be instituted.
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