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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 204749 matches for " P. von Ballmoos "
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Gamma-ray line emission from OB associations and young open clusters. II. The Cygnus region
J. Knodlseder,M. Cervino,J. -M. Le Duigou,G. Meynet,D. Schaerer,P. von Ballmoos
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020799
Abstract: Gamma-ray and microwave observations of the Cygnus region reveal an intense signal of 1.809 MeV line emission, attributed to radioactive decay of 26Al, that is closely correlated with 53 GHz free-free emission, originating from the ionised interstellar medium. We modelled both emissions using a multi-wavelength evolutionary synthesis code for massive star associations that we applied to the known massive star populations in Cygnus. For all OB associations and young open clusters in the field, we determined the population age, distance, and richness as well as the uncertainties in all these quantities from published photometric and spectroscopic data. We propagate the population uncertainties in model uncertainties by means of a Bayesian method. The young globular cluster Cyg OB2 turns out to be the dominant 26Al nucleosynthesis and ionisation source in Cygnus. Our model reproduces the ionising luminosity of the Cygnus region very well, yet it underestimates 26Al production by about a factor of 2. We attribute this underestimation to shortcomings of current nucleosynthesis models, and suggest the inclusion of stellar rotation as possible mechanism to enhance 26Al production. We also modelled 60Fe nucleosynthesis in the Cygnus region, yet the small number of recent supernova events suggests only little 60Fe production. Consequently, a detection of the 1.137 MeV and 1.332 MeV decay lines of 60Fe from Cygnus by the upcoming INTEGRAL observatory is not expected.
Gamma-ray line emission from OB associations and young open clusters: I. Evolutionary synthesis models
M. Cervino,J. Knodlseder,D. Schaerer,P. von Ballmoos,G. Meynet
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the study of gamma-ray emission lines from radioactive isotopes (such as 26Al and 60Fe in conjunction with other multi-wavelength observables of Galactic clusters, associations, and alike objects. Our evolutionary synthesis models are based on the code of Cervino & Mas-Hesse (1994), which has been updated to include recent stellar evolution tracks, new stellar atmospheres for OB and WR stars, and nucleosynthetic yields from massive stars during hydrostatic burning phases and explosive SN II and SN Ib events. The temporal evolution of 26Al and 60Fe production, the equivalent yield of 26Al per ionising O7 V star (yal), and other observables are predicted for a coeval population. We also employed our model to estimate the steady state nucleosynthesis of a population of solar metallicity. To allow for a fully quantitative analysis of existing and future multi-wavelength observations, we propose a Bayesian approach that allows the inclusion of IMF richness effects and observational uncertainties in the analysis. In particular, a Monte Carlo technique is adopted to estimate probability distributions for all observables of interest. We outline the procedure of exploiting these distributions by applying our model to a fictive massive star association. Applications to existing observations of the Cygnus and Vela regions will be discussed in companion papers.
The Cygnus X region: a nucleosynthesis laboratory for INTEGRAL
J. Knodlseder,M. Cervino,D. Schaerer,P. von Ballmoos,G. Meynet
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The detection of 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the Cygnus X complex by the COMPTEL telescope is one of the most convincing proves of massive star nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. The Cygnus X complex is an extremely active nearby region, containing several star forming regions, OB associations and young open star clusters. It houses some of the most massive stars known in our Galaxy and concentrates a large number of Wolf-Rayet stars. Thermal radio continuum emission and intense [C II] line emission reveals widespread ionisation, and at least 60 individual H II regions have been identified. In order to understand the 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the Cygnus X complex, and to compare the observations to theoretical nucleosynthesis calculations, we modelled the multi-wavelength spectrum of the region by means of an evolutionary synthesis model. Our investigation leads us to the following conclusions: 1. Stellar wind ejection is the dominant mechanism for the observed 26Al enrichment in the Cygnus X region. 2. Cyg OB2 is by far the dominating massive star association in Cygnus X and 1.809 MeV line emission from 26Al produced in this association should be detectable by the spectrometer SPI on INTEGRAL. 3. There is only low supernova activity in the Cygnus X complex and the 60Fe lines should be below INTEGRAL's detection sensitivity. The detectability of an individual massive star cluster (Cyg OB2) by INTEGRAL provides a fantastic opportunity for future nucleosynthesis studies using gamma-ray line spectroscopy. We will explore the scientific potential of such observations, and provide estimates for gamma-ray line intensity distributions based on the massive star census of the Cygnus X region.
Antimatter in the Universe : Constraints from Gamma-Ray Astronomy
Peter von Ballmoos
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s10751-014-1024-9
Abstract: We review gamma-ray observations that constrain antimatter - both baryonic and leptonic - in the Universe. Antimatter can be probed through ordinary matter, with the resulting annihilation gamma-rays providing indirect evidence for its presence. Although it is generally accepted that equal amounts of matter and antimatter have been produced in the Big Bang, gamma-rays have so far failed to detect substantial amounts of baryonic antimatter in the Universe. Conversely, positrons are abundantly observed through their annihilation in the central regions of our Galaxy and, although a wealth of astrophysical sources are plausible, their very origin is still unknown. As both antimatter questions - the source of the Galactic positrons and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe - can be investigated through the low energy gamma-ray channel, the mission concept of a dedicated space telescope is sketched out.
Upper limits of the $^{22}$Na yield from O-Ne nova
P. Jean,J. Kn?dlseder,P. von Ballmoos,J. Gómez-Gomar,M. Hernanz,J. José
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The radioactive isotope $^{22}$Na is one of the primary tracer isotopes that may potentially be detectable by gamma-ray spectroscopy. This isotope is predicted to be produced in ONe nova explosions, yet no detection of its 1.275 MeV gamma-ray signature has been reported so far. In particular, 6 years of COMPTEL observations of the galactic bulge, a region that should be particularily rich in nova explosions, have only led to an upper-limit. In this paper we will present the implications of the COMPTEL upper flux limit on the permissible $^{22}$Na yield for ONe novae. We base our analysis on extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of galactic 1.275 MeV emission that were constrained by the most recent results of galactic nova rates and distributions. We demonstrate that the non-detection of the 1.275 MeV line from the galactic bulge implies a solid upper $^{22}$Na yield limit in agreement with current theoretical nucleosynthesis calculations.
26Al in the local interstellar medium
J. Knoedlseder,K. Bennett,H. Bloemen,R. Diehl,W. Hermsen,U. Oberlack,J. Ryan,V. Schoenfelder,P. von Ballmoos
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1007/BFb0104752
Abstract: We estimate the 1.8 MeV luminosity of the Sco-Cen association due to radioactive decay of 26Al to (4-15) 10e-5 ph cm**-2 s**-1. We propose a low surface brightness, limb brightened bubble for the 1.8 MeV intensity distribution. The detectibility of this distribution with existing gamma-ray telescopes is discussed.
Assessment of Tracers of 1.8 MeV Emission
J. Knodlseder,R. Diehl,U. Oberlack,P. von Ballmoos,H. Bloemen,W. Hermsen,A. Iyudin,J. Ryan,V. Schonfelder
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We examined the question of a possible correlation between 1.8 MeV emission and intensity distributions observed at other wavelengths by comparing the 1.8 MeV data to an extended set of all-sky maps, covering the entire explored wavelength range from the radio band up to high-energy gamma-rays. This analysis revealed that tracers of the old stellar population or the local interstellar medium provide only a poor description of the data. Tracers of the young stellar population considerably improve the fit. Residuals are minimized for the free-free emission map obtained by the DMR at microwave wavelengths and the 158 um fine-structure line map of C+ observed by FIRAS. Within the statistics of the present data, both maps provide an overall satisfactory fit. We therefore conclude that adequate tracers of 26Al sources have now been identified. Implications for 26Al source types are discussed (see also Knodlseder, these proceedings).
Laue Gamma-Ray Lenses for Space Astrophysics: Status and Prospects
Filippo Frontera,Peter von Ballmoos
X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/215375
Laue gamma-ray lenses for space astrophysics:status and prospects
Filippo Frontera,Peter Von Ballmoos
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We review feasibility studies, technological developments and astrophysical prospects for Laue lenses devoted to hard X-/gamma-ray astronomy observations.
Soft gamma-ray optics: new Laue lens design and performance estimates
N. Barriere,L. Natalucci,N. Abrosimov,P. von Ballmoos,P. Bastie,P. Courtois,M. Jentschel,J. Knodlseder,J. Rousselle,P. Ubertini
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1117/12.826138
Abstract: Laue lenses are an emerging technology based on diffraction in crystals that allows the concentration of soft gamma rays. This kind of optics that works in the 100 keV - 1.5 MeV band can be used to realize an high-sensitivity and high-angular resolution telescope (in a narrow field of view). This paper reviews the recent progresses that have been done in the development of efficient crystals, in the design study and in the modelisation of the answer of Laue lenses. Through the example of a new concept of 20 m focal length lens focusing in the 100 keV - 600 keV band, the performance of a telescope based on a Laue lens is presented. This lens uses the most efficient mosaic crystals in each sub-energy range in order to yield the maximum reflectivity. Imaging capabilities are investigated and shows promising results.
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