Abstract:
We consider a gas of attractively interacting cold Fermionic atoms which are manipulated by laser light. The laser induces a transition from an internal state with large negative scattering length to one with almost no interactions. The process can be viewed as a tunneling of atomic population between the superconducting and the normal states of the gas. It can be used to detect the BCS-ground state and to measure the superconducting order parameter.

Abstract:
We study collective excitations of rotational and spin states of an ensemble of polar molecules, which are prepared in a dipolar crystalline phase, as a candidate for a high fidelity quantum memory. While dipolar crystals are formed in the high density limit of cold clouds of polar molecules under 1D and 2D trapping conditions, the crystalline structure protects the molecular qubits from detrimental effects of short range collisions. We calculate the lifetime of the quantum memory by identifying the dominant decoherence mechanisms, and estimate their effects on gate operations, when a molecular ensemble qubit is transferred to a superconducting strip line cavity (circuit QED). In the case rotational excitations coupled by dipole-dipole interactions we identify phonons as the main limitation of the life time of qubits. We study specific setups and conditions, where the coupling to the phonon modes is minimized. Detailed results are presented for a 1D dipolar chain.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamics of neutral atoms in a 2D optical lattice which traps two distinct internal states of the atoms in different columns. Two Raman lasers are used to coherently transfer atoms from one internal state to the other, thereby causing hopping between the different columns. By adjusting the laser parameters appropriately we can induce a non vanishing phase of particles moving along a closed path on the lattice. This phase is proportional to the enclosed area and we thus simulate a magnetic flux through the lattice. This setup is described by a Hamiltonian identical to the one for electrons on a lattice subject to a magnetic field and thus allows us to study this equivalent situation under very well defined controllable conditions. We consider the limiting case of huge magnetic fields -- which is not experimentally accessible for electrons in metals -- where a fractal band structure, the Hofstadter butterfly, characterizes the system.

Abstract:
We review recent theoretical advances in cold atom physics concentrating on strongly correlated cold atoms in optical lattices. We discuss recently developed quantum optical tools for manipulating atoms and show how they can be used to realize a wide range of many body Hamiltonians. Then we describe connections and differences to condensed matter physics and present applications in the fields of quantum computing and quantum simulations. Finally we explain how defects and atomic quantum dots can be introduced in a controlled way in optical lattice systems.

Abstract:
The behavior of a two level atom in a half-cavity, i.e. a cavity with one mirror, is studied within the framework of a one dimensional model with respect to spontaneous decay and resonance fluorescence. The system under consideration corresponds to the setup of a recently performed experiment [J. Eschner \textit{et. al.}, Nature \textbf{413}, 495 (2001)] where the influence of a mirror on a fluorescing single atom was revealed. In the present work special attention is paid to a regime of large atom-mirror distances where intrinsic memory effects cannot be neglected anymore. This is done with the help of delay differential equations which contain, for small atom-mirror distances, the Markovian limit with effective level shifts and decay rates leading to the phenomenon of enhancement or inhibition of spontaneous decay. Several features are recovered beyond an effective Markovian treatment, appearing in experimental accessible quantities like intensity or emission spectra of the scattered light.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme utilizing quantum interference to control the transport of atoms in a 1D optical lattice by a single impurity atom. The two internal state of the impurity represent a spin-1/2 (qubit), which in one spin state is perfectly transparent to the lattice gas, and in the other spin state acts as a single atom mirror, confining the lattice gas. This allows to ``amplify'' the state of the qubit, and provides a single-shot quantum non-demolition measurement of the state of the qubit. We derive exact analytical expression for the scattering of a single atom by the impurity, and give approximate expressions for the dynamics a gas of many interacting bosonic of fermionic atoms.

Abstract:
We study ions in a nanotrap, where the electrodes are nanomechanical resonantors. The ions play the role of a quantum optical system which acts as a probe and control, and allows entanglement with or between nanomechanical resonators.

Abstract:
We present a quantum computing scheme with atomic Josephson junction arrays. The system consists of a small number of atoms with three internal states and trapped in a far-off resonant optical lattice. Raman lasers provide the "Josephson" tunneling, and the collision interaction between atoms represent the "capacitive" couplings between the modes. The qubit states are collective states of the atoms with opposite persistent currents. This system is closely analogous to the superconducting flux qubit. Single qubit quantum logic gates are performed by modulating the Raman couplings, while two-qubit gates result from a tunnel coupling between neighboring wells. Readout is achieved by tuning the Raman coupling adiabatically between the Josephson regime to the Rabi regime, followed by a detection of atoms in internal electronic states. Decoherence mechanisms are studied in detail promising a high ratio between the decoherence time and the gate operation time.

Abstract:
A Quantum Kinetic Master Equation (QKME) for bosonic atoms is formulated. It is a quantum stochastic equation for the kinetics of a dilute quantum Bose gas, and describes the behavior and formation of Bose condensation. The key assumption in deriving the QKME is a Markov approximation for the atomic collision terms. In the present paper the basic structure of the theory is developed, and approximations are stated and justified to delineate the region of validity of the theory. Limiting cases of the QKME include the Quantum Boltzmann master equation and the Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, as well as an equation analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

Abstract:
We extend quantum kinetic theory to deal with a strongly Bose-condensed atomic vapor in a trap. The method assumes that the majority of the vapor is not condensed, and acts as a bath of heat and atoms for the condensate. The condensate is described by the particle number conserving Bogoliubov method developed by one of the authors. We derive equations which describe the fluctuations of particle number and phase, and the growth of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The equilibrium state of the condensate is a mixture of states with different numbers of particles and quasiparticles. It is not a quantum superposition of states with different numbers of particles---nevertheless, the stationary state exhibits the property of off-diagonal long range order, to the extent that this concept makes sense in a tightly trapped condensate.