Abstract:
The late infall of cold dark matter onto an isolated galaxy produces flows with definite local velocity vectors throughout the galactic halo. It also produces caustic rings, which are places in the halo where the dark matter density is very large. The self-similar model of halo formation predicts that the caustic ring radii $a_n$ follow the approximate law $a_n \simeq 1/n$. I interpret bumps in the rotation curves of NGC 3198 and of our own galaxy as due to caustic rings of dark matter. In this model of our halo the annual modulation effect in direct searches for WIMPs has the opposite sign from that predicted by the isothermal sphere model.

Abstract:
Axion physics is briefly reviewed. Constraints from laboratory searches, astrophysics and cosmology require the axion mass to be in the range $10^{-6} \lesssim m_a < 3\cdot 10^{-3}$eV. Near the lower end of this range, axions are all or a major component of the cold dark matter of the universe. The late infall of axions, and of any other cold dark matter particles, onto our galaxy produces streams and caustics in its halo. The outer caustics are topological spheres whereas the inner caustics are rings. The self-similar model of galactic halo formation predicts that the caustic ring radii $a_n$ obey the approximate law $a_n \sim 1/n$. Evidence for this law has been found in a statistical study of 32 extended and well-measured external galactic rotation curves, and in the existence and distribution of sharp rises in the Milky Way rotation curve. Moreover, a triangular feature in the IRAS map of the Galactic plane is consistent with the imprint of a ring caustic upon the baryonic matter. Its position coincides with a rise in the rotation curve, the one nearest to us. These observations imply that the dark matter in our neighborhood is dominated by a single flow. Estimates of that flow's density and velocity vector are given.

Abstract:
The strong CP problem and its resolution through the existence of an axion are briefly reviewed. The constraints on the axion from accelerator searches, from the evolution of red giants and from supernova SN1987a combine to require $m_a < 3 \cdot 10^{-3}$ eV, where $m_a$ is the axion mass. On the other hand, the constraint that axions do not overclose the universe implies $m_a \gtwid 10^{-6}$ eV. If $m_a \sim 10^{-5}$ eV, axions contribute significantly to the cosmological energy density in the form of cold dark matter. Dark matter axions can be detected by resonant conversion to microwave photons in a cavity permeated by a static magnetic field and tuned to the axion mass. Experiments using this effect are described, as well as several other types of axion searches.

Abstract:
The late infall of cold dark matter onto an isolated galaxy, such as our own, produces streams and caustics in its halo. The outer caustics are topological spheres whereas the inner caustics are rings. The self-similar model of galactic halo formation predicts that the caustic ring radii $a_n$ follow the approximate law $a_n \sim 1/n$. In a study of 32 extended and well-measured external galactic rotation curves evidence was found for this law. In the case of the Milky Way, the locations of eight sharp rises in the rotation curve fit the prediction of the self-similar model at the 3% level. Moreover, a triangular feature in the IRAS map of the galactic plane is consistent with the imprint of a ring caustic upon the baryonic matter. These observations imply that the dark matter in our neighborhood is dominated by a single flow. Estimates of that flow's density and velocity vector are given.

Abstract:
I investigate the caustics produced by the fall of collisionless dark matter in and out of a galaxy in the limit of negligible velocity dispersion. The outer caustics are spherical shells enveloping the galaxy. The inner caustics are rings. These are located near where the particles with the most angular momentum are at their distance of closest approach to the galactic center. The surface of a caustic ring is a closed tube whose cross-section is a $D_{-4}$ catastrophe. It has three cusps amongst which exists a discrete $Z_3$ symmetry. A detailed analysis is given in the limit where the flow of particles is axially and reflection symmetric and where the transverse dimensions of the ring are small compared to the ring radius. Five parameters describe the caustic in that limit. The relations between these parameters and the initial velocity distribution of the particles are derived. The structure of the caustic ring is used to predict the shape of the bump produced in a galactic rotation curve by a caustic ring lying in the galactic plane.

Abstract:
A modification of the cavity technique for axion dark matter detection is described in which the cavity is driven with input power instead of being permeated by a static magnetic field. A small fraction of the input power is pumped by the axion field to a receiving mode of frequency $\omega_1$ when the resonance condition $\omega_1 = \omega_0 \pm m_a$ is satisfied, where $\omega_0$ is the frequency of the input mode and $m_a$ the axion mass. The relevant form factor is calculated for any pair of input and output modes in a cylindrical cavity. The overall search strategy is discussed and the technical challenges to be overcome by an actual experiment are listed.

Abstract:
Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to milliKelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the $10^{-4}$ eV mass range.

Abstract:
An argument is presented that the dark matter is axions, at least in part. It has three steps. First, axions behave differently from the other forms of cold dark matter because they form a rethermalizing Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Second, there is a tool to distinguish axion BEC from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation, namely the study of the inner caustics of galactic halos. Third, the observational evidence for caustic rings of dark matter is consistent in every aspect with axion BEC, but not with the other proposed forms of dark matter.

Abstract:
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.

Abstract:
The late infall of cold dark matter onto an isolated galaxy such as our own produces flows with definite velocity vectors at any physical point in the galactic halo. It also produces caustics which are places where the dark matter density is very large. The outer caustics are topological spheres whereas the inner caustics are rings. The self-similar model of galactic halo formation predicts that the caustic ring radii $a_n$ follow the approximate law $a_n \sim 1/n$. In a recent study of 32 extended and well-measured galactic rotation curves, we found evidence for this law.