Abstract:
We analyze the macroscopic dynamics of a Bose gas in a harmonic trap with a superimposed two-dimensional optical lattice, assuming a weak coupling between different lattice sites. We consider the situation in which the local chemical potential at each lattice site can be considered as that provided by the Lieb-Liniger solution. Due to the weak coupling between sites and the form of the chemical potential, the three-dimensional ground-state density profile and the excitation spectrum acquire remarkable properties different from both 1D and 3D gases. We call this system a quasi-Tonks gas. We discuss the range of applicability of this regime, as well as realistic experimental situations where it can be observed.

Abstract:
We analyze the physics of bright solitons in two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates. These solitons are not possible in short-range interacting gases. In particular, we discuss the necessary conditions for the existence of stable 2D bright solitary waves. The stability of the solutions is studied by means of the analysis of lowest-lying excitations. Additionally, we study the scattering of solitary waves, which contrary to the contact-interacting case, is inelastic, and could lead to fusion of solitary waves. Finally, the experimental possibilities for observability are discussed.

Abstract:
The dynamical stability of dark solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates is studied. For standard short-range interacting condensates dark solitons are unstable against transverse excitations in two and three dimensions. On the contrary, due to its non local character, the dipolar interaction allows for stable 3D stationary dark solitons, opening a qualitatively novel scenario in nonlinear atom optics. We discuss in detail the conditions to achieve this stability, which demand the use of an additional optical lattice, and the stability regimes.

Abstract:
The partially attractive character of the dipole-dipole interaction leads to phonon instability in dipolar condensates, which is followed by collapse in three-dimensional geometries. We show that the nature of this instability is fundamentally different in two-dimensional condensates, due to the dipole-induced stabilization of two-dimensional bright solitons. As a consequence, a transient gas of attractive solitons is formed, and collapse may be avoided. In the presence of an harmonic confinement, the instability leads to transient pattern formation followed by the creation of stable two-dimensional solitons. This dynamics should be observable in on-going experiments, allowing for the creation of stable two-dimensional solitons for the first time ever in quantum gases.

Abstract:
We study the expansion of a dilute ultracold sample of fermions initially trapped in a anisotropic harmonic trap. The expansion of the cloud provides valuable information about the state of the system and the role of interactions. In particular the time evolution of the deformation of the expanding cloud behaves quite differently depending on whether the system is in the normal or in the superfluid phase. For the superfluid phase, we predict an inversion of the deformation of the sample, similarly to what happens with Bose-Einstein condensates. Viceversa, in the normal phase, the inversion of the aspect ratio is never achieved, if the mean field interaction is attractive and collisions are negligible.

Abstract:
We discuss the effects of collisions on the expansion of a degenerate normal Fermi gas, following the sudden removal of the confining trap. Using a Boltzmann equation approach, we calculate the time dependence of the aspect ratio and the entropy increase of the expanding atomic cloud taking into account the collisional effects due to the deformation of the distribution function in momentum space. We find that in dilute gases the aspect ratio does not deviate significantly from the predictions of ballistic expansion. Conversely, if the trap is sufficiently elongated the thermal broadening of the density distribution due to the entropy increase can be sizeable, revealing that even at zero temperature collisions are effective in a Fermi gas.

Abstract:
We analyze the scattering of bright solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates placed in unconnected layers. Whereas for short-range interactions unconnected layers are independent, a remarkable consequence of the dipole interaction is the appearance of novel nonlocal interlayer effects. In particular, we show that the interlayer interaction leads to an effective molecular potential between disconnected solitons, inducing a complex scattering physics between them, which includes inelastic fusion into soliton-molecules, and strong symmetric and asymmetric inelastic resonances. In addition, a fundamentally new 2D scattering scenario in matter-wave solitons is possible, in which inelastic spiraling occurs, resembling phenomena in photorrefractive materials. Finally, we consider the scattering of unconnected 1D solitons and discuss the feasibility in current on going experiments.

Abstract:
The expansion of a 1D Bose gas is investigated employing the Lieb-Liniger equation of state within the local density approximation. We show that during the expansion the density profile of the gas does not follow a self-similar solution, as one would expect from a simple scaling Ansatz. We carry out a variational calculation, which recovers the numerical results for the expansion, the equilibrium properties of the density profile, and the frequency of the lowest compressional mode. The variational approach allows for the analysis of the expansion in all interaction regimes between the mean field and the Tonks-Girardeau limits, and in particular shows the range of parameters for which the expansion violates self-similarity.

Abstract:
We investigate the scissors modes in binary mixtures of degenerate dilute quantum gases, for both Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. For the latter we consider both the superfluid and normal hydrodynamic and collisionless regimes. We analyze the dependence of the frequencies of the scissors modes and their character as a function of the Bose-Fermi coupling and the trap geometry. We show that the scissors mode can reveal a clear trace of the hydrodynamic behavior of the Fermi gas.

Abstract:
The physics of vortex lines in dipolar condensates is studied. Due to the nonlocality of the dipolar interaction, the 3D character of the vortex plays a more important role in dipolar gases than in typical short-range interacting ones. In particular, the dipolar interaction significantly affects the stability of the transverse modes of the vortex line. Remarkably, in the presence of a periodic potential along the vortex line, a roton minimum may develop in the spectrum of transverse modes. We discuss the appropriate conditions at which this roton minimum may eventually lead to an instability of the straight vortex line, opening new scenarios for vortices in dipolar gases.