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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202695 matches for " P. P. Nikhil Raj "
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Land Use and Land Cover Changes in a Tropical River Basin: A Case from Bharathapuzha River Basin, Southern India  [PDF]
P. P. Nikhil Raj, P. A. Azeez
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2010.24026
Abstract: A study of the spatial and temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC) was conducted using Remote Sensing and GIS. We analyzed the LULC of Bharathapuzha river basin, south India using multispectral LANDSAT imageries of 1973-2005 time periods. 31% depletion in the natural vegetation cover and 8.7% depletion in wetland agriculture area were seen in the basin during the period. On the other hand the urban spread in the basin increased by 32%. The study highlights the need for a scientific management plan for the sustainability of the river basin, keeping in view the recent climatic anomalies and hydrological conditions of the basin.
Morphometric Analysis of a Tropical Medium River System: A Case from Bharathapuzha River Southern India  [PDF]
P. P. Nikhil Raj, P. A. Azeez
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2012.24011
Abstract: Baseline morphometric information at a sub basin level is essential to develop appropriate strategy for sustainable, socially acceptable, ecologically benign and economically viable development of a river basin. The present study was carried out in one of the less studied Bharathapuzha river basin (BRB), the second longest river in the state of Kerala, India. The annual discharge of the river is 3.94 km3. Nevertheless the basin, which receives about 1828 mm of annual rainfall, in recent years has been facing dearth of water. We used GIS and RS tools to study the morphometric characteristics of the basin. The seventh order main river is formed by several lower order streams forming a dentritic flow pattern. Basin geology, slope and rainfall pattern in the basin determine the morphometric characteristics of the basin. The linear aspects of the basin including stream length ratio and bifurcation ratio indicate the role of relief in the basin while the areal ratios indicate the elongate nature of the basin.
Studies on the Effect of Ba2+ on Growth, structural, Morphology, Optical, and Mechanical Properties of L-Valinium Picrate  [PDF]
K. Russel Raj, P. Murugakoothan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1010075
Abstract: Single crystals of undoped (pure) and barium nitrate (Ba (NO3)2)-doped L-Valinium Picrate (LVP) were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. Morphological changes have been observed when Ba (NO3)2) is doped into LVP crystals. The dopant concentration in the crystals was measured by ICP technique. Slight changes in the unit cell parameter of LVP after doping with Ba (NO3)2) have been detected. The powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystals has been recorded and the various planes of reflection identified shows shift in the peak positions. FTIR and UV spectra reveal the functional group identification and optical property of the grown crystals. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements revealed that both 5 and 10 mol % of Ba (NO3)2) in LVP enhanced the SHG efficiency by 92.85 and 160.59 times that of KDP respectively. However, at higher concentration, SHG efficiency is not increased but rather decreased from it undoped condition. Microhardness studies show that hardness number (Hv) increased with increase in load for all the grown crystals of this work.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: “Adoption is not to be treated as an act by a State to force a child on unwilling parents. On the contrary it is a voluntary act on the part of eligible persons to provide comfort, love and security to the abandoned and homeless children. No religion, can deny family love to these children of God. Religions preach peace and brotherhood. How can there be brotherhood if you will not treat a section of your citizens as brothers. Children are the living embodiment of God. In them you find the manifestation of God in all its forms. In the smile of the child you see beauty of creation.”
Optimum Load Shedding in Power System Strategies with Voltage Stability Indicators  [PDF]
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.21002
Abstract: An optimal load shedding strategy for power systems with optimum location and quantity of load to be shed is presented in this paper. The problem of load shedding for avoiding the existence of voltage instability in power systems is taken as a remedial action during emergency state in transmission and distribution sector.Optimum location of loads to be shed is found together with their optimum required quantity. L-Indicator index is in used for this purpose with a modified new technique. Applications to be standard 6 bus Ward-Hale test system and IEEE – 14 bus system are presented to validate the applicability of the proposed technique to any system of any size.
Multi Objective Multireservoir Optimization in Fuzzy Environment for River Sub Basin Development and Management  [PDF]
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.14033
Abstract: In this paper, a multi objective, multireservoir operation model is proposed using Genetic algorithm (GA) under fuzzy environment. A monthly Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm Fuzzy Optimization (MOGAFU-OPT) model for the present study is developed in ‘C’ Language. The GA parameters i.e. population size, number of generations, crossover probability, and mutation probability are decided based on optimized val-ues of fitness function. The GA operators adopted are stochastic remainder selection, one point crossover and binary mutation. Initially the model is run for maximization of irrigation releases. Then the model is run for maximization of hydropower production. These objectives are fuzzified by assuming a linear membership function. These fuzzified objectives are simultaneously maximized by defining level of satisfaction (?) and then maximizing it. This approach is applied to a multireservoir system in Godavari river sub basin in Ma-harashtra State, India. Problem is formulated with 4 reservoirs and a barrage. The optimal operation policy for maximization of irrigation releases, maximization of hydropower production and maximization of level of satisfaction is presented for existing demand in command area. This optimal operation policy so deter-mined is compared with the actual average operation policy for Jayakwadi Stage-I reservoir.
An Architecture for “Web of Things” Using SOCKS Protocol Based IPv6/IPv4 Gatewaying for Heterogeneous Communication  [PDF]
P. Shrinivasan R. Patnaikuni, Raj B. Kulkarni
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2012.21002
Abstract: “Web of Things” evolved from “Internet of Things”. Lot of research has been done in designing architecture for “Web of Things”. Two main architectures are Smart gateway based architecture and embedded Web Server based architectture. These architectures address some of the basic and essential issues relating to Service Oriented Architecture for “Web of Things”. Taking into consideration the period of coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6 we propose an architecture using SOCKS protocol based IPv6/IPv4 gatewaying and refinements which facilitates smooth heterogeneous communications between the IPv6 and IPv4 enabled embedded nodes and can potentially be used to prevent security threats like Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks on embedded devices attached to the web and increase its performance. Our architecture provides a way for caching responses from device and thereby increasing its efficiency and performance and yielding quick response times.
Enhanced Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Communication Networks Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm  [PDF]
D. Antony Arul Raj, P. Sumathi
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2014.64007
Abstract: Energy efficient routing is one of the major thrust areas in Wireless Sensor Communication Networks (WSCNs) and it attracts most of the researchers by its valuable applications and various challenges. Wireless sensor networks contain several nodes in its terrain region. Reducing the energy consumption over the WSCN has its significance since the nodes are battery powered. Various research methodologies were proposed by researchers in this area. One of the bio-inspired computing paradigms named Cuckoo search algorithm is used in this research work for finding the energy efficient path and routing is performed. Several performance metrics are taken into account for determining the performance of the proposed routing protocol such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, energy consumption and delay. Simulation is performed using NS2 and the results shows that the proposed routing protocol is better in terms of average throughput, and average energy consumption.
Cybersecurity: A Stochastic Predictive Model to Determine Overall Network Security Risk Using Markovian Process  [PDF]
Nawa Raj Pokhrel, Chris P. Tsokos
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2017.82007
Abstract: There are several security metrics developed to protect the computer networks. In general, common security metrics focus on qualitative and subjective aspects of networks lacking formal statistical models. In the present study, we propose a stochastic model to quantify the risk associated with the overall network using Markovian process in conjunction with Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) framework. The model we developed uses host access graph to represent the network environment. Utilizing the developed model, one can filter the large amount of information available by making a priority list of vulnerable nodes existing in the network. Once a priority list is prepared, network administrators can make software patch decisions. Gaining in depth understanding of the risk and priority level of each host helps individuals to implement decisions like deployment of security products and to design network topologies.
Performance enhancement of solar module by cooling: An experimental investigation
P G Nikhil, M Premalatha
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2012,
Abstract: The study evaluates the silicone oil cooling of the solar module surface. Solar module with maximum power of 7W was employed for cooling. This paper summarizes the result of an outdoor experiment. The experiments were conducted in batch mode, with the cooling medium spread on the module surface at different thickness from 0mm to 6mm. The performance of the module, throughout the day, for different thickness of the medium is reported. The study also presents a mathematical model, predicting the variation of the maximum power when the module surface is cooled using silicone oil. The results of the equation model are compared and validated with the experimental as well as with results reported in the earlier works. The cooling contributes to appreciable improvement in the module efficiency to above 20%.
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