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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 441221 matches for " P. J. Williams "
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A Comparison of Genetic Programming with Genetic Algorithms for Wire Antenna Design
P. J. Williams,T. C. A. Molteno
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/197849
Abstract: This work compares the performance of genetic programming (GP) against traditional fixed-length genome GA approaches on the optimization of wire antenna designs. We describe the implementation of a GP electromagnetic optimization system for wire structures. The results are compared with the traditional GA approach. Although the dimensionality of the search space is much higher for GP than GA, we find that the GP approach gives better results than GA for the same computational effort. In addition, we find that a more expressive antenna structure grammar, dramatically, improves the performance of the GP approach.
Circadian Control of Neuroendocrine Circuits Regulating Female Reproductive Function
Wilbur P. Williams III,Lance J. Kriegsfeld
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2012.00060
Abstract: Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene) lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in control of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge.
Stream and sporadic meteoroids associated with Near Earth Objects
Tadeusz J. Jopek,Iwan P. Williams
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921314005031
Abstract: NEOs come close to the Earth's orbit so that any dust ejected from them, might be seen as a meteor shower. Orbits evolve rapidly, so that a similarity of orbits at one given time is not suffcient to prove a relationship, orbital evolution over a long time interval also has to be similar. Sporadic meteoroids can not be associated with a single parent body, they can only be classified as cometary or asteroidal. However, by considering one parameter criteria, many sporadics are not classified properly therefore two parameter approach was proposed.
A Parametric Modeling Approach to Measuring the Gas Masses of Circumstellar Disks
Jonathan P. Williams,William M. J. Best
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/59
Abstract: The disks that surround young stars are mostly composed of molecular gas, which is harder to detect and interpret than the accompanying dust. Disk mass measurements have therefore relied on large and uncertain extrapolations from the dust to the gas. We have developed a grid of models to study the dependencies of isotopologue CO line strengths on disk structure and temperature parameters and find that a combination of 13CO and C18O observations provides a robust measure of the gas mass. We apply this technique to Submillimeter Array observations of nine circumstellar disks and published measurements of six well studied disks. We find evidence for selective photodissociation of C18O and determine masses to within a factor of about three. The inferred masses for the nine disks in our survey range from 0.7-6 M_Jup, and all are well below the extrapolation from the interstellar medium gas-to-dust ratio of 100. This is consistent with the low masses of planets found around such stars, and may be due to accretion or photoevaporation of a dust-poor upper atmosphere. However, the masses may be underestimated if there are more efficient CO depletion pathways than those known in molecular clouds and cold cores.
Relative Evaporation Probabilities of 3He and 4He from the Surface of Superfluid 4He
J. P. Warren,C. D. H. Williams
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4526(99)02250-4
Abstract: We report a preliminary experiment which demonstrates that 3He atoms in Andreev states are evaporated by high-energy (E/k_B ~ 10.2 K) phonons in a quantum evaporation process similar to that which occurs in pure 4He. Under conditions of low 3He coverage, high-energy phonons appear to evaporate 3He and 4He atoms with equal probability. However, we have not managed to detect any 3He atoms that have been evaporated by rotons, and conclude that the probability of a roton evaporating a 3He atom is less than 2% of the probability that it evaporates a 4He atom.
Monolayers of 3He on the Surface of Bulk Superfluid 4He
J. P. Warren,C. D. H. Williams
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4526(99)02224-3
Abstract: We have used quantum evaporation to investigate the two-dimensional fermion system that forms at the free surface of (initially isotopically pure) 4He when small quantities of 3He are added to it. By measuring the first-arrival times of the evaporated atoms, we have determined that the 3He-3He potential in this system is V_3S/k_B=(0.23+/-0.02) K nm^2 (repulsive) and estimated a value of m_3S=(1.53+/-0.02)m_3 for the zero-coverage effective mass. We have also observed the predicted second layer-state which becomes occupied once the first layer-state density exceeds about 0.6 monolayers.
Fluid model for a network operating under a fair bandwidth-sharing policy
F. P. Kelly,R. J. Williams
Mathematics , 2004, DOI: 10.1214/105051604000000224
Abstract: We consider a model of Internet congestion control that represents the randomly varying number of flows present in a network where bandwidth is shared fairly between document transfers. We study critical fluid models obtained as formal limits under law of large numbers scalings when the average load on at least one resource is equal to its capacity. We establish convergence to equilibria for fluid models and identify the invariant manifold. The form of the invariant manifold gives insight into the phenomenon of entrainment whereby congestion at some resources may prevent other resources from working at their full capacity.
Poincaré duality for $K$-theory of equivariant complex projective spaces
J. P. C. Greenlees,G. R. Williams
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We make explicit Poincar\'{e} duality for the equivariant $K$-theory of equivariant complex projective spaces. The case of the trivial group provides a new approach to the $K$-theory orientation.
Heavy traffic on a controlled motorway
F. P. Kelly,R. J. Williams
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: Unlimited access to a motorway network can, in overloaded conditions, cause a loss of capacity. Ramp metering (signals on slip roads to control access to the motorway) can help avoid this loss of capacity. The design of ramp metering strategies has several features in common with the design of access control mechanisms in communication networks. Inspired by models and rate control mechanisms developed for Internet congestion control, we propose a Brownian network model as an approximate model for a controlled motorway and consider it operating under a proportionally fair ramp metering policy.We present an analysis of the performance of this model.
SCRAM: Software configuration and management for the LHC Computing Grid project
J. P. Wellisch,C. Williams,S. Ashby
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: Recently SCRAM (Software Configuration And Management) has been adopted by the applications area of the LHC computing grid project as baseline configuration management and build support infrastructure tool. SCRAM is a software engineering tool, that supports the configuration management and management processes for software development. It resolves the issues of configuration definition, assembly break-down, build, project organization, run-time environment, installation, distribution, deployment, and source code distribution. It was designed with a focus on supporting a distributed, multi-project development work-model. We will describe the underlying technology, and the solutions SCRAM offers to the above software engineering processes, while taking a users view of the system under configuration management.
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