Abstract:
We propose a hybridization phenomenology to describe the pseudogap state of the underdoped cuprates. We show how a momentum independent pseudogap opens asymmetrically from the Fermi-surface but symmetric to the zeroes of the hybridized bonding dispersion, which results in false d-wave characteristics of the pseudogap at the Fermi level. By comparing against a d-wave form factor we illustrate the difficulty in identifying a momentum independent order in momentum averaged quantities such as the electronic Raman response. We identify a suppression in the single-particle density of states which produces a hump feature which should be observable experimentally in tunnelling $dI/dV$ spectra and distinguishes the s-wave and d-wave ordering scenarios.

Abstract:
Hexagonal warping provides an anisotropy to the dispersion curves of the helical Dirac fermions that exist at the surface of a topological insulator. A sub-dominant quadratic in momentum term leads to an asymmetry between conduction and valence band. A gap can also be opened through magnetic doping. We show how these various modifications to the Dirac spectrum change the polarization function of the surface states and employ our results to discuss their effect on the plasmons. In the long wavelength limit, the plasmon dispersion retains its square root dependence on its momentum, $\boldsymbol{q}$, but its slope is modified and it can acquire a weak dependence on the direction of $\boldsymbol{q}$. Further, we find the existence of several plasmon branches, one which is damped for all values of $\boldsymbol{q}$, and extract the plasmon scattering rate for a representative case.

Abstract:
The phenomenological Green's function developed in the works of Yang, Rice and Zhang has been very successful in understanding many of the anomalous superconducting properties of the deeply underdoped cuprates. It is based on considerations of the resonating valence bond spin liquid approximation and is designed to describe the underdoped regime of the cuprates. Here we emphasize the region of doping, $x$, just below the quantum critical point at which the pseudogap develops. In addition to Luttinger hole pockets centered around the nodal direction, there are electron pockets near the antinodes which are connected to the hole pockets by gapped bridging contours. We determine the contours of nearest approach as would be measured in angular resolved photoemission experiments and emphasize signatures of the Fermi surface reconstruction from the large Fermi contour of Fermi liquid theory (which contains $1+x$ hole states) to the Luttinger pocket (which contains $x$ hole states). We find that the quasiparticle effective mass renormalization increases strongly towards the edge of the Luttinger pockets beyond which it diverges.

Abstract:
Electronic screening renormalizes the linear bands of graphene and in the vicinity of the Dirac point, creates a diamond shaped structure in the quasiparticle spectral density. This is a result of electron-plasmon scattering processes which produce a finite momentum feature referred to as the `plasmaron ring'. In this work we explore the effects of uniaxial strain on these spectral features with the aim of understanding how strain modifies correlations. We derive and calculate the spectral density to the G$_0$W-RPA level which allows us to identify the dispersive behaviour of the diamond geometry, and thus electron-plasmon scattering, for variation in electron-electron coupling strength and magnitude of applied strain. We find that the application of strain changes the geometry (in momentum) of the electron-plasmon scattering and that renormalizations beyond simple geometrical scalings further enhance this effect. These results suggest that the properties of the plasmaron ring can be tuned through the application of uniaxial strain, effectively producing a larger fine structure constant without the need to change the sample substrate.

Abstract:
We present results for the equation of state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model on an isotropic square lattice as obtained from a controlled and numerically exact large-cluster dynamical mean field simulation. Our results are obtained for large but finite systems and are extrapolated to infinite system size using a known finite size scaling relation. We present the energy, entropy, double occupancy and nearest-neighbour spin correlations extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit and discuss the implications of these calculations on pseudogap physics of the 2D-Hubbard model away from half filling. We find a strong behavioural shift in energy below a temperature $T^*$ which becomes more pronounced for larger clusters. Finally, we provide reference calculations and tables for the equation of state for values of doping away from half filling which are of interest to cold atom experiments.

Abstract:
A recent microscopic model of the pseudogap state, based on the resonating valence bond (RVB) spin liquid, has provided a simple ansatz for the electronic self energy in which a gap forms on the antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone as the limit of a Mott insulator is approached in the underdoped regime. Here, the ansatz is employed to calculate the electronic specific heat when a superconducting gap is also included. We find qualitative agreement with all experimental observations in the underdoped regime of the cuprates. We explore the relationship of the theory to two other purely phenomenological approaches, the nodal liquid and the Fermi arc model, and provide justification for their use on experimental data in light of this microscopic RVB theory.

Abstract:
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy applied to the high-$T_{c}$ cuprates has revealed significant spatial inhomogeneity on the nanoscale. Regions on the order of a coherence length in size show variations of the magnitude of the superconducting gap of order $\pm20%$ or more. An important unresolved question is whether or not these variations are also present in the bulk, and how they influence superconducting properties. As many theories and data analyses for high-$T_{c}$ superconductivity assume spatial homogeneity of the gap magnitude, this is a pressing question. We consider the far-infrared optical conductivity and evaluate, within an effective medium approximation, what signatures of spatial variations in gap magnitude are present in various optical quantities. In addition to the case of d-wave superconductivity, relevant to the high-$T_c$ cuprates, we have also considered s-wave gap symmetry in order to provide expected signatures of inhomogeneities for superconductors in general. While signatures of gap inhomogeneities can be strongly manifested in s-wave superconductors, we find that the far-infrared optical conductivity in d-wave is robust against such inhomogeneity.

Abstract:
The finite momentum optical response $\sigma({\boldsymbol{q}},\omega)$ of graphene can be probed with the innovative technique of infrared nanoscopy where mid-infrared radiation is confined by an atomic force microscope cantilever tip. In contrast to conventional $q\sim 0$ optical absorption which primarily involves Dirac fermions with momentum near the Fermi momentum, $k\sim k_F$, for finite $q$, $\sigma({\boldsymbol{q}},\omega)$ has the potential to provide information on many body renormalizations and collective phenomena which have been found at small $k< k_F$ near the Dirac point in electron-doped graphene. For electron-electron interactions, the low energy excitation spectrum characterizing the incoherent part of the quasiparticle spectral function of Dirac electrons with $k\sim k_F$ consists of a flat, small amplitude background which scales with chemical potential and Fermi momentum. However, probing of the states with $k$ near $k=0$ will reveal plasmarons, a collective state of a charge carrier and a plasmon. These collective modes in graphene have recently been seen in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and here we describe how they manifest in near field optics.

Abstract:
We have calculated the Raman B$_{1g}$ and B$_{2g}$ spectra as a function of temperature, as well as doping, for the underdoped cuprates, using a model based on the resonating valence-bond spin-liquid. We discuss changes in intensity and peak position brought about by the presence of a pseudogap and the implied Fermi surface reconstruction, which are elements of this model. Signatures of Fermi surface reconstruction are evident as a sharp rise in the doping dependence of the antinodal to nodal peak ratio which occurs below the quantum critical point. The temperature dependence of the B$_{1g}$ polarization can be used to determine if the superconducting gap is limited to the Fermi pocket, as seen in angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or extends beyond. We find that the slope of the linear low energy B$_{2g}$ spectrum maintains its usual d-wave form, but with an effective gap which reflects the gap amplitude projected on the Fermi pocket. Our calculations capture the main qualitative features revealed in the extensive data set available on the HgBa$_2$CuO$_{4+\delta}$ (Hg-1201) cuprate.

Abstract:
In highly correlated systems one can define an optical self energy in analogy to its quasiparticle (QP) self energy counterpart. This quantity provides useful information on the nature of the excitations involved in inelastic scattering processes. Here we calculate the self energy of the intraband optical transitions in graphene originating in the electron-electron interaction (EEI) as well as electron-phonon interaction (EPI). Although optics involves an average over all momenta ($k$) of the charge carriers, the structure in the optical self energy is nevertheless found to mirror mainly that of the corresponding quasiparticles for $k$ equal to or near the Fermi momentum $k_F$. Consequently plasmaronic structures which are associated with momenta near the Dirac point at $k=0$ are not important in the intraband optical response. While the structure of the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) reflects the sharp peaks of the phonon density of states, the excitation spectrum associated with the electron-electron interaction is in comparison structureless and flat and extends over an energy range which scales linearly with the value of the chemical potential. Modulations seen on the edge of the interband optical conductivity as it rises towards its universal background value are traced to structure in the quasiparticle self energies around $k_F$ of the lower Dirac cone associated with the occupied states.