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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 271302 matches for " P. I. Olasehinde "
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Radiometric Survey as a Useful Tool in Geological Mapping of Western Nigeria
A. N. Amadi,N. O. Okoye,P. I. Olasehinde,I. A. Okunlola
Journal of Geography and Geology , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jgg.v4n1p242
Abstract: Gamma ray Spectrometer (DISA-300) and broadband gamma ray scintillometer (BGS-ISL) were used to evaluate the radiometric properties of rocks (Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic) in parts of southwestern Nigeria. The study revealed that although the two instruments used recorded different gamma radiation value and the graphs generated by the instruments are quite similar. Based on the major peaks and troughs of the radioactivity graph, the different formations in the area were clearly delineated and these correspond approximately to the geological boundaries in the area. Lithologic characterization of the formations revealed that the concentration of radioactive elements in rock varies. Shale, clay and granites have the highest amount of gamma count (60-105) while amphibolites show the lowest gamma count (16-46). The gamma count is a function of the concentration of radioactive elements in the rock. The reading ranges from 65-85cps in the scintillometer while the spectrometer varies from 19.75-38.88cps. The difference in readings may be attributed to the higher sensitivity of the scintillometer to gamma radiation than the spectrometer. However, the two instruments display similar pattern of curves and good correlation.
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Nitrate Pollution in Groundwater of Abuja, Nigeria
M. A. Dan-Hassan,P. I. Olasehinde,A. N. Amadi,J. Yisa
International Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v4n3p104
Abstract: Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many households, private and government establishments depends solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is rather delicate because of its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate when compared to surface water. The purpose of this paper is to present the occurrence of nitrate in groundwater of Abuja and discuss the implication and sources of the nitrate. High nitrate level in drinking water leads to infant methaemoglobinaemia (blue-baby syndrome), gastric cancer, metabolic disorder and livestock poisoning. A simplified map of nitrate occurrences in Abuja indicates that some areas have nitrate concentration above the WHO and NSDWQ guide limit of 50 mg/l and it is dominant in the rainy season than dry season. The number of people drinking water with nitrate concentration above the permissible level cannot be quantified presently. The sources of nitrate in the groundwater were attributed to bedrock dissolution in the course of groundwater migration and more importantly anthropogenic activities such as on-site sanitation, waste dumpsites and agricultural chemicals. Water treatment by bio-denitrification and nitrate pollution control programs should be introduced at local, state and federal levels in order to educate people on the need to protect groundwater from nitrate pollution caused by agricultural activity and indiscriminate disposal of wastes.
Isotope and geochemical characterization of surface and subsurface waters in the semi-arid Sokoto Basin, Nigeria
SMA Adelana, PI Olasehinde, P Vrbka
African Journal of Science and Technology , 2003,
Abstract: Stable isotopes and geochemical studies have been applied in the investigation of groundwater resources in Sokoto Basin, northwestern Nigeria. Generally, the characteristic hydrochemical classification in the study area is calcium-alkali-bicarbonate. Surface waters are characterized by alkali-calcium-bicarbonate while groundwater is of Ca-Mg-HCO3. The plot of δ18O versus δ2H shows that five isotopic groups can be distinguished. Group I-III is of groundwater origin while group IV and V represent surface water. A combination of the hydrochemical and isotope data (14C, 13C and 3H) reveals the Sokoto basin aquifers generally contains good quality groundwater of Holocene age (100 to 10,000 years BP). Key Words: stable isotopes, geochemical characterization, groundwater, Sokoto Basin. African Journal of Science and Technology Vol.4(2) 2003: 80-89
Evaluation of electrical resistivity anisotropy in geological mapping: A case study of Odo Ara, West Central Nigeria
PI Olasehinde, OO Bayewu
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The study of electrical resistivity anisotropy in rocks has become important in increasing the accuracy of geological mapping using electrical resistivity survey. The study area, Odo Ara near Egbe, west central Nigeria, has been surveyed using electrical resistivity soundings. Sixty Radial Vertical Electrical sounding (RVES) measurements were carried out in the study area which comprises of the banded gneiss, amphibolites, schist and intrusive pegmatites. The aim of the study is to use the electrical resistivity anisotropy properties of the area to resolve its geological setup. The VES data showed a significant presence of electrical resistivity anisotropy. The VES curves obtained were predominantly of 3 geoelectric layer of H-type (ρ1>ρ2<ρ3) curves; the topsoil, sandy clay/ clay layer and fractured basement. The pseudo-sections show a good correlation with the geoelectric section. Moreover, the iso-resistivity and isopach maps also show a significant correlation with the lithological and strike of the rocks in the area but due to the non uniqueness of electrical resistivity, the lithologic difference between the banded gneiss and the amphibolite at the south western part of the area could not be totally resolved. However, the combination of the anisotropy polygons and the iso-resistivity map has reduced the ambiguity inherent in using a single geophysical parameter.
Prevalence and management of Falciparium malaria among infants and children in Ota, Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria
G.I Olasehinde, A.A Ajay, S.O Taiwo, B.T Adekeye, O.A Adeyeba
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite infection among infants and children (0-12yrs) in Ota, Southwestern Nigeria between April and December 2008. The two hospitals used were Ota General Hospital and Covenant University Health Centre, Canaanland, Ota. Thick and thin films were made and stained using standard parasitological procedures. Structured Questionnaires were distributed to ascertain the age, sex, drugs or insecticides used and state of health of the subjects before recruiting them into the study. Overall, 215 (80.5%) of the 267 children investigated were found to have malaria infection. Age group (0-5 years) had the highest frequency rate of 84.7% with mean parasite density of 900 and the difference between the age groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Children of illiterates from suburb villages had the highest mean parasite density of 850 with 78.1% prevalence rate. 20% of the children were given local herbs and 22% used orthodox medicine as prophylaxis. Only 18% used insecticide treated mosquito nets while 24% of the parents spray insecticides to prevent mosquito bites. There is therefore need for more awareness on effective use of drugs and Insecticide Treated bed nets in malaria hyperendemic regions.
Application of electrical resistivity survey for groundwater investigation in a basement rock region: A case study of Akobo - Ibadan, Nigeria
LI Nwankwo, PI Olasehinde, OE Osundele
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2013,
Abstract: A geo-resistivity exploration has been carried out for groundwater within the Akobo catchment of the ancient city of Ibadan. The area lies within the basement rock terrain of South Western Nigeria and bounded by longitudes 3o 51′ – 3o 53′E and latitudes 7o 22′ – 7o 24′N. The exploration was done using SYSCAL KID meter while a total of 10 VES with an average of 46m station interval were completed in 3 profiles by means of Schlumberger configuration with total current electrode spread of 160m. The results revealed that the area is underlain by four geo-electric layers. The top lateritic soil has resistivity values ranging from 28.1 to 481.8 Ωm and thickness of 0.8 to 5.7m. The second layer has sand/clay intercalation with resistivity values varying between 47.7 and 192.5 Ωm and thickness varying between 2.8 and 19.4 m. The weathered/fractured basement has resistivity values from 106.2 to 846.8 Ωm with thickness of 13.2 to 24.9m while the partly weathered/fresh basement layer has resistivities ranging from 130 to 856.4 Ωm. The distribution of resistivities in the area shows that the weathered basement has a relatively low resistivity (< 200 Ωm) values in the north-eastern and north-western axis coupled with high thickness values (> 20 m) which suggests the presence of an aquiferous zone. Therefore, this portion of the study area could be highly hydro-geologically promising and maybe recommended for siting groundwater tube.
Investigation of Lead Binding by Tithonia diversifolia
A.E. Okoronkwo,E.F. Olasehinde
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) had been chosen for metal binding studies as a prelude to finding economic use for it. Adsorption capacity, pH-profile and time-dependency studies were conducted using stem biomass of this plant. Results of the investigation showed that over 96% of the lead content of water were adsorbed even in the first 5 min of interaction. Optimum pH of adsorption was recorded as 5 for the metal while the kinetic study conducted showed that the adsorption process follows a pseudo-second order reaction. In order to understand the effect of NaOH modification on the Tithonia diversifolia, batch modification studies were conducted. Results of this modification studies show enhanced metal binding activity. Presence of cations such as calcium and magnesium also interfered with the adsorption process. The adsorption isotherm was apparently Langmuir in nature.
Robust and cost-effective system for measuring and logging of data on soil water content and soil temperature profile  [PDF]
M. Ferlan, P. Simon?i
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.36105
Abstract: The paper describes the system for measuring and logging of data on soil water content and soil temperature profile. The system was tested in a field and shows great potential for performing continuous measurements. It has several benefits including ease of manufacture, low cost, reliable performance and the ability to download the data without specialized software.
Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from south western Nigeria
GI Olasehinde, CS Yah, R Singh, OO Ojuronbge, AA Ajayi, N Valecha, AO Abolaji, AO Adeyeba
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Plasmodium falciparum the main causative agent of malaria is an important public health vector. With the use of PCR, its genetic diversity has been extensively studied with dearth information from Nigeria. Methods: In this study, 100 P. falciparum strains merozoite surface protein 1( msp-1), merozoite surface protein 2 (msp-2) and Glutamate rich protein (Glurp) from Ogun State General Hospitals were characterized. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism following gel electrophoresis of DNA products from nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) of their respective allelic families KI, MAD 20, RO33 (MSP-1);FC27, 3D7 (MSP-2) and Glutamate rich protein respectively. Results: Majority of the patients showed monoclonal infections while multiplicity of the infection for msp-1 and msp-2 were 1.1 and 1.2 respectively. The estimated number of genotypes was 8 msp-1 (4 KI; 3 MAD; 1 RO33) and 6 msp-2 (3 FC27; 3 3D7). 80% of the isolates coded for Glurp with allelic size ranged between 700 and 900 bp. Conclusion: The allelic distributions however were similar to those previously reported in other endemic malaria countries. Future studies will be designed to include other malaria endemic regions of Nigeria such as the oil exploration regions.
Probe and Emission Spectrometry Diagnostics in Hollow Cathode Magnetron  [PDF]
N. P. Poluektov, Yu P. Tsar’gorodsev, I. I. Usatov, A. G. Evstigneev, I. A. Kamyschov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.310185
Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of an ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) by means of hollow cathode magnetron. Langmuir probe, optical emission spectroscopy measurements were used to study a mechanism for the production of excited argon and copper atoms and ions. The kinetic processes of excitation were considered and the main processes were determined using results of measurements. The pressure range is 0.5 - 10 mTorr with 1- 5 kW discharge power. Plasma parameters such as electron densities and temperatures, electron energy distribution function, plasma space and floating potentials as a function of the position, pressure and power in the growth chamber were measured. The plasma density is up to 1012 cm?3 at 20 cm from the magnetron for 10 mTorr.
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