Abstract:
The present work examines the effects arising from the nonlinear Landau damping and the bounced motion of protons (trapped in the mirror geometry of the geomagnetic field) in the formation of nonlinear Alfvénic structures. These structures are observed at distances 1-5AU in the solar wind plasma (with ~ 1). The dynamics of formation of these structures can be understood using kinetic nonlinear Schrodinger (KNLS) model. The structures emerge due to balance of nonlinear steepening (of large amplitude Alfvén waves) by the linear Landau damping of ion-acoustic modes in a finite solar wind plasma. The ion-acoustic mode is driven nonlinearly by the large amplitude Alfvén waves. At the large amplitudes of Alfvén wave, the effects due to nonlinear Landau damping become important. These nonlinear effects are incorporated into the KNLS model by modifying the heat flux dissipation coefficient parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The effects arising from the bounced motion (of mirroring protons) are studied using a one-dimensional Vlasov equation. The bounced motion of the protons can lead to growth of the ion-acoustic mode, propagating in the mirror geometry of the geomagnetic field. The significance of these studies in the formation of dissipative quasistationary structures observed in solar wind plasma is discussed.

Abstract:
The shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma is predicted to be lower than the collisional viscosity for weak coupling. The estimated ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is rather close to the ratio calculated by N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory for strong coupling, which indicates that the quark-gluon plasma might be strongly coupled. However, in presence of momentum anisotropy, the Weibel instability can arise and drive the turbulent transport. Shear viscosity can be lowered by enhanced collisionality due to turbulence, but the decorrelation time and its relation to underlying dynamics and color-magnetic fields have not been calculated self-consistently. In this paper, we use resonance broadening theory for strong turbulence to calculate the anomalous viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma for nonequilibrium. For saturated Weibel instability, we estimate the scalings of the decorrelation rate and viscosity and compare these with collisional transport. This calculation yields an explicit connection between the underlying momentum space anisotropy and the viscosity anomaly.

Abstract:
The theory of mean field electrodynamics for diffusive processes in Electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model is presented. In contrast to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) the evolution of magnetic field here is governed by a nonlinear equation in the magnetic field variables. A detailed description of diffusive processes in two dimensions are presented in this paper. In particular, it has been shown analytically that the turbulent magnetic field diffusivity is suppressed from naive quasilinear estimates. It is shown that for complete whisterlization of the spectrum, the turbulent diffusivity vanishes. The question of whistlerization of the turbulent spectrum is investigated numerically, and a reasonable tendency towards whisterlization is observed. Numerical studies also show the suppression of magnetic field diffusivity in accordance with the analytical estimates.

Abstract:
The development and time evolution of a transport barrier in a magnetically confined plasma with non-monotonic, nonlinear dependence of the anomalous flux on mean gradients is analyzed. Upon consideration of both the spatial inhomogeneity and the gradient nonlinearity of the transport coefficient, we find that the transition develops as a bifurcation front with radially propagating discontinuity in local gradient. The spatial location of the transport barrier as a function of input flux is calculated. The analysis indicates that for powers slightly above threshold, the barrier location $x_b(t) \sim ( D_n t (P-P_c)/P_c)^{1/2},$ where $P_c$ is the local transition power threshold and $D_n$ is the neoclassical diffusivity . This result suggests a simple explanation of the high disruptivity observed in reversed shear plasmas. The basic conclusions of this theory are insensitive to the details of the local transport model.

Abstract:
A simple model collisionless, dissipative, compressible MHD (Alfvenic) turbulence in a magnetized system is investigated. In contrast to more familiar paradigms of turbulence, dissipation arises from Landau damping, enters via nonlinearity, and is distributed over all scales. The theory predicts that two different regimes or phases of turbulence are possible, depending on the ratio of steepening to damping coefficient (m_1/m_2). For strong damping (|m_1/m_2|<1), a regime of smooth, hydrodynamic turbulence is predicted. For |m_1/m_2|>1, steady state turbulence does not exist in the hydrodynamic limit. Rather, spikey, small scale structure is predicted.

Abstract:
Collisionless regime kinetic models for coherent nonlinear Alfven wave dynamics are studied using fluid moment equations with an approximate closure anzatz. Resonant particle effects are modelled by incorporating an additional term representing dissipation akin to parallel heat conduction. Unlike collisional dissipation, parallel heat conduction is presented by an integral operator. The modified derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation thus has a spatially nonlocal nonlinear term describing the long-time evolution of the envelope of parallel-propagating Alfven waves, as well. Coefficients in the nonlinear terms are free of the 1/(1-beta) singularity usually encountered in previous analyses, and have very a simple form which clarifies the physical processes governing the large amplitude Alfvenic nonlinear dynamics. The nonlinearity appears via coupling of an Alfvenic mode to a kinetic ion-acoustic mode. Damping of the nonlinear Alfven wave appears via strong Landau damping of the ion-acoustic wave when the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is close to unity. For a (slightly) obliquely propagating wave, there are finite Larmor radius corrections in the dynamical equation. This effect depends on the angle of wave propagation relative to B_0 and vanishes for the limit of strictly parallel propagation. Explicit magnetic perturbation envelope equations amenable to further analysis and numerical solution are obtained. Implications of these models for collisionless shock dynamics are discussed.

Abstract:
The saturation of ion cyclotron Alfven turbulence excited by beam particles is investigated using resonance broadening theory. The stochastic scattering which decorrelates particles, includes both random acceleration by electric fields and a turbulent magnetic mirroring effect. Turbulent mirroring is shown to yield non-Gaussian corrections to the orbits even if the random electric and magnetic fields are Gaussian. The predicted steady-state turbulence level exhibits a peaked anglular distribution, with a maximum near Theta ~ 60 degrees.

Abstract:
The theory of passive scalar transport in two dimensional turbulent fluids is generalized to the case of 2D MHD. Invariance of the cross correlation of scalar concentration and magnetic potential produces a novel contribution to the concentration flux. This pinch effect is proportional to the mean potential gradient, and is shown to drastically reduce transport of the passive scalar across the mean magnetic field when . Transport parallel to the mean magnetic field is unchanged. Implications for models of transport in turbulent magnetofluids are discussed. PAC NOS. 47.25.Jn, 47.65.+a

Abstract:
We study the effects of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference [Y. Xu {\it et al}, Nucl. Fusion \textbf{51}, 062030] which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator-prey model coupling the Drift-Wave Zonal Mode system [M. Leconte and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas \textbf{19}, 055903] to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L-H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are: i) The L-I and I-H power thresholds \emph{both} increase with RMP amplitude $|\bx|$, the relative increase of the L-I threshold scales as $\Delta P_{\rm LI} \propto |\bx|^2 \nu_*^{-2} \gyro^{-2}$, where $\nu_*$ is edge collisionality and $\gyro$ is the sound gyroradius. ii) RMPs are predicted to \emph{decrease} the hysteresis between the forward and back-transition. iii) Taking into account the mean density evolution, the density profile - sustained by the particle source - has an increased turbulent diffusion compared with the reference case without RMPs which provides one possible explanation for the \emph{density pump-out} effect.

Abstract:
The diffusion of uni-directional magnetic fields by two dimensional turbulent flows in a weakly ionized gas is studied. The fields here are orthogonal to the plane of fluid motion. This simple model arises in the context of the decay of the mean magnetic flux to mass ratio in the interstellar medium. When ions are strongly coupled to neutrals, the transport of a large--scale magnetic field is driven by both turbulent mixing and nonlinear, ambipolar drift. Using a standard homogeneous and Gaussian statistical model for turbulence, we show rigorously that a large-scale magnetic field can decay on at most turbulent mixing time scales when the field and neutral flow are strongly coupled. There is no enhancement of the decay rate by ambipolar diffusion. These results extend the Zeldovich theorem to encompass the regime of two dimensional flows and orthogonal magnetic fields, recently considered by Zweibel (2002). The limitation of the strong coupling approximation and its implications are discussed.