Abstract:
Optical pumping of He-3 produces large (hyper) nuclear-spin polarizations independent of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength. This allows lung MRI to be performed at reduced fields with many associated benefits, such as lower tissue susceptibility gradients and decreased power absorption rates. Here we present results of 2D imaging as well as accurate 1D gas diffusion mapping of the human lung using He-3 at very low field (3 mT). Furthermore, measurements of transverse relaxation in zero applied gradient are shown to accurately track pulmonary oxygen partial pressure, opening the way for novel imaging sequences.

Abstract:
The structure of the excited $2^{3}$S and $2^{3}$P triplet states of $^{3}$He and $^{4}$He in an applied magnetic field B is studied using different approximations of the atomic Hamiltonian. All optical transitions (line positions and intensities) of the 1083 nm $2^{3}$S-$2^{3}$P transition are computed as a function of B. The effect of metastability exchange collisions between atoms in the ground state and in the $2^{3}$S metastable state is studied, and rate equations are derived, for the populations these states in the general case of an isotopic mixture in an arbitrary field B. It is shown that the usual spin-temperature description remains valid. A simple optical pumping model based on these rate equations is used to study the B-dependence of the population couplings which result from the exchange collisions. Simple spectroscopy measurements are performed using a single-frequency laser diode on the 1083 nm transition. The accuracy of frequency scans and of measurements of transition intensities is studied. Systematic experimental verifications are made for B=0 to 1.5 T. Optical pumping effects resulting from hyperfine decoupling in high field are observed to be in good agreement with the predictions of the simple model. Based on adequately chosen absorption measurements at 1083 nm, a general optical method to measure the nuclear polarisation of the atoms in the ground state in an arbitrary field is described. It is demonstrated at $B\sim$0.1 T, a field for which the usual optical methods could not operate.

Abstract:
We have extended a model for the $\gamma N\to \pi\pi N$ reaction to virtual photons and selected the diagrams which have a $\Delta$ in the final state. With this model we have evaluated cross sections for the virtual photon cross section as a function of $Q^2$ for different energies. The agreement found with the $\gamma_v p\to\Delta^0\pi^+$ and $\gamma_v p\to\Delta^{++}\pi^-$ reactions is good. The sensitivity of the results to $N\Delta$ transition form factors is also studied. The present reaction, selecting a particular final state, is an extra test for models of the $\gamma_{v} N\to \pi\pi N$ amplitude. The experimental measurement of the different isospin channels for this reaction are encouraged as a means to unravel the dynamics of the two pions photoproduction processes.

Abstract:
Using a model for two pion photoproduction on the proton previously tested in total cross sections and invariant mass distributions, we evaluate here polarization observables on which recent experiments are providing new information. We evaluate cross sections for spin 1/2 and 3/2, which are measured at Mainz and play an important role in tests of the GHD sum rule. We also evaluate the proton polarization asymmetry $\Sigma$ which is currently under investigation at GRAAL in Grenoble.

Abstract:
We have extended a model for the $\gamma N\to \pi\pi N$ reaction to virtual photons and selected the diagrams which have a $\Delta$ in the final state. The agreement found with the $\gamma_v p\to\Delta^0\pi^+$ and $\gamma_v p\to\Delta^{++}\pi^-$ reactions is good. The sensitivity of the results to $N\Delta$ transition form factors is also studied. The present reaction, selecting a particular final state, is an extra test for models of the $\gamma_{v} N\to \pi\pi N$ amplitude.

Abstract:
Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cloaking devices. Our analysis includes several examples containing different bump geometries that illustrate the proposed methodology.

Abstract:
Recent theoretical advances applied to metamaterials have opened new avenues to design a coating that hides objects from electromagnetic radiation and even the sight. Here, we propose a new design of cloaking devices that creates perfect invisibility in isotropic media. A combination of positive and negative refractive indices, called plus-minus construction, is essential to achieve perfect invisibility (i.e., no time delay and total absence of reflection). Contrary to the common understanding that between two isotropic materials having different refractive indices the electromagnetic reflection is unavoidable, our method shows that surprisingly the reflection phenomena can be completely eliminated. The invented method, different from the classical impedance matching, may also find electromagnetic applications outside of cloaking devices, wherever distortions are present arising from reflections.

Abstract:
One of the striking properties of artificially structured materials is the negative refraction, an optical feature that known natural materials do not exhibit. Here, we propose a simple design, composed of two parallel layers of materials with different refraction indices $n_1=-n_2$, that constructs perfect reflection-less devices. The electromagnetic waves can tunnel from one layer to the other, a feature that resembles a truncation of the physical space leading to an electromagnetic warp drive. Since the refractive indices do not require any large values, this method demonstrates for the first time the practical feasibility of guiding electromagnetic fields in complete absence of reflection phenomena and without degradation of transmission efficiency at all.

Abstract:
Recently, several studies have investigated the transcription process associated to specific genetic regulatory networks. In this work, we present a stochastic approach for analyzing the dynamics and effect of negative feedback loops (FBL) on the transcriptional noise. First, our analysis allows us to identify a bimodal activity depending of the strength of self-repression coupling D. In the strong coupling region D>>1, the variance of the transcriptional noise is found to be reduced a 28 % more than described earlier. Secondly, the contribution of the noise effect to the abundance of regulating protein becomes manifest when the coefficient of variation is computed. In the strong coupling region, this coefficient is found to be independent of all parameters and in fair agreement with the experimentally observed values. Finally, our analysis reveals that the regulating protein is significantly induced by the intrinsic and external noise in the strong coupling region. In short, it indicates that the existence of inherent noise in FBL makes it possible to produce a basal amount of proteins even though the repression level D is very strong.

Abstract:
The aim of an invisibility device is to guide light around any object put inside, being able to hide objects from sight. In this work, we propose a novel design of dielectric invisibility media based on negative refraction and optical conformal mapping that seems to create perfect invisibility. This design has some advantages and more relaxed constraints compared with already proposed schemes. In particular, it represents an example where the time delay in a dielectric invisibility device is zero. Furthermore, due to impedance matching of negatively refracting materials, the reflection should be close to zero. These findings strongly indicate that perfect invisibility with optically isotropic materials is possible. Finally, the area of the invisible space is also discussed.