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Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit
Delgado-Vargas Francisco,Félix-Favela Fernando,Pío-León Juan,López-Angulo Gabriela
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME) and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AqF)] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test) and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations). The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF) showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Physicochemical, nutritional, and antioxidant characteristics of the fruit of Ehretia tinifolia Características fisicoquímicas, nutricias y antioxidantes del fruto de Ehretia tinifolia
Juan Fernando Pío-León,Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho,Mercedes G. López,Julio Montes-Avila
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2012,
Abstract: Physicochemical characteristics of Ehretia tinifolia L. fruit are presented for the first time. The fruit of this plant is a small drupe of 8 mm diameter and weighs 0.2 g. Its pulp is slightly acidic (pH 5.8) with a high ratio of soluble solids (11 °Brix) to acidity (0.1%). The antioxidant activity of E. tinifolia fruits (DPPH, 303.8 mg EVC/100 g f.w.; ABTS, 84.1 mg EVC/100 g f.w.; DPPH, ABTS and EVC mean 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt, and equivalents of vitamin C, respectively) was similar or higher than reported for several tropical fruits (e.g. orange, guava, and prickly pear). Ehretia tinifolia fruit has a high content of ash (12.6 mg/100 g d.w.). The edible portion is an important source of selenium (0.1 mg/100 g d.w.) and total fatty acids were 834.8 mg/100g d.w.; the main fatty acids were palmitic (27.6%), linoleic (26.4%), linolenic (18.1%), and oleic (17.6%). The content of fatty acids of seeds was 5 137.5 mg/100 g d.w., with linoleic (54.3%), oleic (22.9%), and palmitic (12.7%) as main components. Se presentan por vez primera características fisicoquímicas del fruto de Ehretia tinifolia L. Este fruto es una drupa peque a de 8 mm de diámetro y 0.2 g, su pulpa es ligeramente ácida (pH 5.8) y la relación de sólidos solubles (11 °Brix) a acidez (0.1%) es alta. La actividad antioxidante de los frutos de E. tinifolia (DPPH, 303.8 mg EVC/100 g p.f.; ABTS, 84.1 mg EVC/100 g p.f.; EVC significa equivalentes de vitamina C) fue similar o mayor que lo registrado para varios frutos tropicales (e.g. naranja, guayaba o tuna). El fruto presenta un alto contenido de cenizas (12.6 mg/100 g p.s.). La porción comestible es una fuente importante de selenio (0.1 mg/100 g p.s.) y el total de ácidos grasos fue de 834.8 mg/100g p.s.; los principales ácidos grasos fueron palmítico (27.6%), linoleico (26.4%), linolénico (18.1%) y oléico (17.6%). El contenido de ácidos grasos de las semillas fue 5 137.5 mg/100 g p.s.; siendo los principales componentes el linoleico (54.3%), oleico (22.9%) y palmítico (12.7%).
La enfermedad de Chagas en las Américas: una perspectiva de ecosalud
Brice?o-León, Roberto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001300007
Abstract: the historical processes involved in chagas disease transmission relate to the patterns and conditions of human settlements, especially in rural areas, due to proximity to forest areas, where both vectors and trypanosoma cruzi can occur, combined with precarious housing conditions and underlying poverty. however, seasonal and permanent rural-urban migration has played a major role in re-mobilizing vectors, t. cruzi, and chagas-infected individuals. a new agricultural frontier in the amazon has led to a new transmission pattern, especially with palm trees located close to houses. improved blood bank surveillance has decreased transmission by blood transfusions. international migration also plays a role in chagas disease epidemiology. the united states and spain, where specific health services for chagas disease diagnosis and treatment are largely absent, harbor an unknown number of individuals with chagas, probably infected decades ago. the article discusses major strides in chagas disease knowledge and control, besides identifying persistent gaps, such as the need for housing improvements, especially in poor rural areas in the americas.
Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon
Brice?o-León, Roberto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001300005
Abstract: the increasing number of autochthonous cases of chagas disease in the amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. this transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. the current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. the current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. the expansion of chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the amazon.
Urban violence and public health in Latin America: a sociological explanatory framework
Brice?o-León, Roberto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000600002
Abstract: interpersonal violence has become one of the main public health issues in latin american cities. this article presents a framework for sociological interpretation that operates on three levels, expressed in the factors that originate, foment, or facilitate violence. macro-social factors include: social inequality due to the increase in wealth versus poverty; the paradox of more schooling with fewer employment opportunities; increasing expectations and the impossibility of meeting them; changes in family structure; and loss of importance of religion in daily life. at the meso-social level the analysis highlights: increased density in poor areas and urban segregation; masculinity cult; and changes in the local drug market. the micro-social level includes: an increase in the number of firearms; alcohol consumption; and difficulties in verbal expression of feelings. the article concludes with an analysis of how violence is leading to the breakdown not only of urban life but also of citizenship as a whole in latin america.
Siete tesis sobre la educación sanitaria para la participación comunitaria
Brice?o-León, Roberto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1996000100002
Abstract: this article attempts to establish some postulates to orient health education aimed at promoting community participation. theories on human action serve as the point of departure for establishing two currents of thought explaining action or non-action by people. two working principles are proposed, i.e., that it is necessary to both know and rely on human beings. these two principles are expressed in two premises: "only by knowing individuals and their living circumstances is it possible to take efficient and on-going action in health," and "no one can care for someone else's health if that person does not wish to do so himself/herself." the author goes on to raise seven theses: 1. there is no such thing as one person knowing and another not knowing; rather, there are two people who know distinct things. 2. education is imparted not only through educational programs, but in all health-related action. 3. ignorance is not a void to be filled, but a plenitude to be changed. 4. education should be dialogical and participatory. 5. education should reinforce people's self-confidence. 6. education should seek to reinforce the effort-achievement model of knowledge. 7. education should promote individual responsibility and collective cooperation.
El contexto político de la participación comunitaria en América Latina
Brice?o-León, Roberto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1998000600013
Abstract: this article reviews the overall significance of the concept of community participation in health with respect to endemic diseases. it also observes how changes in latin american society during the past forty years have forced radical changes in the notion of participation. the article describes changes in society and analyzes participation in the cold war context, with four modalities of participation: as ideological manipulation, as cheap labor, as medical care facilitation, and as subversion. it then reviews participation in the context of the crisis of ideologies and describes two modalities: participation as a grassroots movement and as popular promotion. finally, it interprets the forms participation takes in the context of economic adjustment programs, and from there it describes participation as both a complement to the state and a form of privatization. the article concludes with a proposal for participation as a mechanism to expand and extend democracy; in this sense, it highlights participation as a means of criticism of power, a fomenter of democratic organization, and a mechanism of transformation for the health sector.
Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis
Brice?o-León,Roberto;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232006000200010
Abstract: this article analyzes the changes in violence in venezuela during the last forty years. it links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. the article characterizes venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in caracas. after this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. we describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the h. chávez government. the article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in venezuela.
A violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política
Brice?o-León,Roberto;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232006000500012
Abstract: this article analyzes the changes in violence in venezuela during the last forty years. it links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990; 19 in 1998; and 50 in 2003. the article characterizes venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in caracas. after this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence.we describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the h. chávez government. the article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in venezuela.
Las ciencias sociales y la salud: un diverso y mutante campo teórico
Brice?o-León,Roberto;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232003000100004
Abstract: the article examines the creation of the social science and health subdiscipline from the time of its pioneers in the early 19th century, discusses the formation of the theoretical field in the mid-20th century, and describes its three basic approaches: explanation of the medical dimension by the social one and explanation of disease by social conditions, with two variants - the individualist perspective and the structural-collective one. it concludes with a discussion of the type of linkage that should exist between the social sciences and health, as a basis for the creation of a new theoretical field called the social science of health.
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