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ACTION DURATION OF ATRACURIUM IN HYPERTENSIVE PREGNANT PATIENTS WHO RECEIVED MAGNESIUM SULFATE
P SAJEDI,S BORGHEIAN
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Introduction. Usually, infusion of intermittent doses of succinylcholin is used for relaxation of muscles in the preeclamptic pregnant women treated with magnesium sulfate during cesarian. section This drug has complications such as hyperkalemia, phase 11block, etc. On the other hand non depolarizing muscle relaxant in these patients should be used only in the presence of nerve stimulator and with careful titration. Methods. Duration of clinical action of a medium acting non depolarizing muscle relaxant "atracurium" with succinylcolin's infusion was studied in 86 preeclamptic pregnant women who received therapeutic doses of magnesium sulfate. Findings. Magnesium sulfate did not prolong clinical action of atracurium. Conclusion. Based on this study it can be concluded that administration of atracurium in the pregnant women who received therapeutic dose of magnesium sulfate in the absence of peripheral nerve stimulator is not contraindicated.
SODIUM THIOPANTAL AND MIDAZOLAM USE IN NEUROLEPTIC ANESTHESIA
P SAJEDI,M EBNE AHMADI
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Introduction: In this study amnesic and anesthetic effects of Midazolam used to reduce awarness and recall of neurolept Anesthesia. Methods: The study was clinical trial with simple random sampling. Patients were studied in four groups of 30 numbers. Each preparation and induction of anesthesia was identical in all groups. Bolous Thiopental (BT) group received 0.3mg/kg NaThiopental during induction of Anesthesia. Infusion thiopental group (IT) 0.3mg/kg Na thiopental was given during induction plus 100mg/kg/min for Maintaince of anesthesia. Bolous Midazolam (BM) group recieved 0.1 mg/kg Midazolam during induction and Infusion Midazolam (lM) groug 0.1 mg/kg during Induction plus 0.1mg/kg/h for maintainance of Anesthesia. All groups were observed for signs of awareness and recall. Also hemodynamic variables and duration of recovery were measured and compared between groups with analysis of variance and Chi square tests. Result: Signs of Awareness (tachycardia and Lacrimation) in IM group was significantly less than other groups. (P<0.05) Percent of patients reported recall were significantly lower in IM group. (P<0.05) Discussion: Infusion of Midazolam can reduce signs of awareness and recall during neurolept anesthesia without increase in complications or duration of recovery period
Comparing ‘remifentanil-propofol’ and ‘fentanyl-propofol’ in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial space-occupying lesions
Gh Khalili,P Sajedi,S Yousef Zadeghan
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Control of intracranial pressure (ICP) before, during and after neurosurgical operations is crucially important. Therefore, trying different methods and drug combinations to attain this goal is an ongoing effort in anesthesiology. In this study we compared two combinations of a narcotic agent with propofol in neurosurgical operations to control intracranial pressure.Methods: In this prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial, we enrolled 34 patients with supratentorial brain tumors who were candidates for craniotomy in Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran from April 2008 to April 2009. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 17, in whom the first and the second group, respectively, received a combination of "propofol and fentanyl" and a combination of "propofol and remifentanyl" as maintenance of anesthesia. The hemodynamic status, ICP during the surgery, and post-surgical complications in recovery unit were observed for and registered in a questionnaire.Results: Hemodynamic status was similar in both groups and they did not differ in recovery complications except for pain which was more prevalent in remifentanil group (P<0.03). Although the patients in fentanyl group better responded to the drug for lowering ICP than remifentanyl group, but the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusion: There is no difference between these two anesthetic agent combinations and both could be useful in the anesthesia of neurosurgical operations. However combination of propofol and fentanyl seem to be superior because of more pain relief and a smoother recovery period.
Midazolam Versus Ketamine in the Management of Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Lower Abdominal and Limb Surgeries
Khalili GR,Sajedi P,Danesh H
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Emergence agitation (EA) is a post-anesthetic problem which interferes with a child's recovery and presents a challenge in terms of assessment and management. In this study, we compared the effects of midazolam and ketamine as premedication in the management of EA in children aged 1-6 years.Methods: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial study, 58 children aged 1-6 years who were undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgery in Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan during 2008 until 2009. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 0.1 mg/kg midozolam (28) or 0.5 mg/kg ketamine (29) by IV route in the premedication room. All patients received a standardized anesthetic regimen and isoflurane was used for the maintenance of anesthesia. The incidence and severity of agitation (agitation score), severity of pain (pain score), anesthesia, recovery and extubation durations were recorded postoperatively.Results: The prevalence of agitation in midazolam (21.4%) was lower than ketamine group (34.5%; P<0.05). In addition, the duration of agitation in ketamine group (21±16.67 min) was significantly higher than midazolam group (6.83±6.55 min), (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were seen in agitation score, pain score, anesthesia, recovery or extubation durations in the two groups (P>0.05).Conclusion: The study showed that midazolam could reduce the frequency of agitation better than ketamine but both drugs were able to reduce the severity of agitation after short-time surgeries in young children.
A single dose of propofol can produce excellent sedation and comparable amnesia with midazolam in cystoscopic examination
P Sajedi,A Yaraghi,L Niareisy
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In this study we compared the sedative and amnesic effects of propofol with midazolam in cystoscopy examination. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was done on 44 adults, with American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I, II, III, who were candidate for cystoscopic examination. Patients were recruited according to convenience sampling method and randomized into two equal groups. In study group, propofol plus fentanyl and in control group midazolam plus fentanyl were given intravenously. Vital signs and SaO2, the number of patients movements, presence of eyelid movements and verbal contact all at the first and 10th minutes after beginning the procedure were recorded. Also, frequency distributions of patients recalls, VAS (visual analog scale) for pain and VAS for satisfaction scores were evaluated in recovery room. RESULTS: Frequency distribution of patients movements, frequency distribution of verbal contact and eyelid movements at the first and 10th minutes were higher in midazolam group (P<0.05). There were a lower VAS pain score and higher VAS satisfaction score in propofol group (P = 0.009 and P = 0.041 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Propofol was more effective than midazolam in inducing deep sedation and immobility in patients undergoing cystoscopy examination, without interfacing patients with additional danger. KEYWORDS: Propofol, midazolam, cystoscopy.
JAW THRUST AS A CLINICAL TEST TO ASSESS THE ADEQUATE DEPTH OF ANESTHESIA FOR TRACHEAL INTUBATIONS IN PEDIATRIC INHALATION ANESTHESIA
P SAJEDI,M GOL PARVAR,J MOHAMADHASSANI
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Introduction: Inhalation induction is a common method in pediatrics anesthesia . There is not suitable clincial guide for assessmen depth of anesthesia before intubation, in this study adequacy of Jaw thrust as a guide for this assessement was evaluated. Methods: In a clinical trial study 90 pediatric patient, ASA1 & 2, six month to 5 year old age, were divided in case and control groups. Inhalation inductions were done by 4% Halothane, 4lit/min O2 and 4Lit/min N2o under spontaneous ventilation. In case and control groups, Jaw thrust and ordinary methods were utilized respectively for assessment of depth of anesthesia befor intubations. Changes in HR, SpO2, end tidal of halothane and duration of induction, duration of laryngoscopy, reactions to intubations and complications were measured and then analyzed by t - test and Chi squar statistical tests. Results: Duration and complications of larynogscopy were greater in case than control group. Conclusion: Jaw thrust alone is not a good clinical test assessment of depth of anesthesia before intubations in inhalation anesthesia. Probaly one and half to two minutes after negative respones to jaw thrust is a suitable time for intubations in pediatrics inhalation anesthesia .
ContSteg: Contourlet-Based Steganography Method  [PDF]
Hedieh SAJEDI, Mansour JAMZAD
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.13022
Abstract: A category of techniques for secret data communication called steganography hides data in multimedia me-diums. It involves embedding secret data into a cover-medium by means of small perceptible and statistical degradation. In this paper, a new adaptive steganography method based on contourlet transform is presented that provides large embedding capacity. We called the proposed method ContSteg. In contourlet decomposi-tion of an image, edges are represented by the coefficients with large magnitudes. In ContSteg, these coeffi-cients are considered for data embedding because human eyes are less sensitive in edgy and non-smooth re-gions of images. For embedding the secret data, contourlet subbands are divided into 4×4 blocks. Each bit of secret data is hidden by exchanging the value of two coefficients in a block of contourlet coefficients. Ac-cording to the experimental results, the proposed method is capable of providing a larger embedding capacity without causing noticeable distortions of stego-images in comparison with a similar wavelet-based steg-anography approach. The result of examining the proposed method with two of the most powerful steganaly-sis algorithms show that we could successfully embed data in cover-images with the average embedding ca-pacity of 0.05 bits per pixel.
COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS OF ORAL AND INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDITATION IN CHILDREN
P SAJEDI,M.A ATTARI,A GHORBANI
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Background. Preoperative evaluation and psychological preparation is important before anesthesia. Children are very dependent to their parents, specially before 5 years. Anesthesiologist must administer anxiolytic and sedative drugs before separation from parents as premeditation. The aim of this study is comparison survey on effect of oral midazolam and intranasal midazolam in children 1 to 5 years as premeditation. Methods. In a clinical trial study performed through first half of 1377 at St. Alzahra Center (Isfahan University of Medicine), sixty healthy children in first class of ASA who had non gastrointestinal elective surgery were studied. Group one consisted of thirty children who received intravenous form midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) with fruit juice orally 45 to 60 minutes before operation. Group 2 consisted of thirty children who received midazolam (IV form) 0.2 mg/kg intranasally 15 minutes before operation. Findings. Anxiety was less in first group during administration of drug. Forty four percent were quiet in this group (P < 0.005). Seventy six percent of children who well accepted the drug, were in the first group (P < 0.005). There was no significant statistical difference between two groups in other aspects of study. Conclusion. Oral administration of midazolam has better acceptance in children than intranasal with less anxiety.
Effects of Nutrients Foliar Application on Agrophysiological Characteristics of Maize under Water Deficit Stress
Nour Ali SAJEDI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2010,
Abstract: To investigate effects of nutrients foliar application on agrophysiological characteristics of maize hybrid ‘KSC 704’ water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was arranged in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications to the Research Station of Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Iran in 2007-2008. Main factors studied were four irrigation levels including irrigation equal to crop water requirement, water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage (V8), blister stage (R2) and filling grain stage (R4) in the main plot. Combined levels of selenium treatment (without and with application 20 gha-1) and micronutrients (without and with application 2 lha-1) were situated in sub plots. Results showed that water deficit stress decreased grain yield 19.7% in blister stage as compared with control. Using selenium increased relative content water at R2 and R4 stages significantly. Using selenium in water deficit stress condition increased measured traits except plant height as compared with treatment without selenium. A negative antagonistic interaction was found between selenium and micronutrients on some measured traits. Between treatments of water deficit stress, highest grain yield equal 6799.52 and 6736.97 kgha-1 was obtained from combined treatments of water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+without selenium+without micronutrients and water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+selenium+without micronutrients respectively which compared with treatment of irrigation equal to crop water requirement+selenium+microelements did not differ significant. According to the results of experiment, it is concluded that with micronutrients fertilizer spray under optimum irrigation and selenium spray under water deficit obtain optimum yield.
Geomagnetic disturbances may be environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis: an ecological study of 111 locations in 24 countries
Sajedi Seyed,Abdollahi Fahimeh
BMC Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-100
Abstract: Background We noticed that a hypothesis based on the effect of geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) has the ability to explain special features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Areas around geomagnetic 60 degree latitude (GM60L) experience the greatest amount of GMD. The easiest way to evaluate our hypothesis was to test the association of MS prevalence (MSP) with angular distance to geomagnetic 60 degree latitude (AMAG60) and compare it with the known association of MS with geographical latitude (GL). We did the same with angular distance to geographic 60 degree latitude (AGRAPH60) as a control. Methods English written papers with MSP keywords, done in Europe (EUR), North America (NA) or Australasia (AUS) were retrieved from the PubMed. Geomagnetic coordinates were determined for each location and AMAG60 was calculated as absolute value of numerical difference between its geomagnetic latitude from GM60L. By an ecological study with using meta-regression analyses, the relationship of MSP with GL, AMAG60 and AGRAPH60 were evaluated separately. MSP data were weighted by square root of number of prevalent cases. Models were compared by their adjusted R square (AR2) and standard error of estimate (SEE). Results 111 MSP data were entered in the study. In each continent, AMAG60 had the best correlation with MSP, the largest AR2 (0.47, 0.42 and 0.84 for EUR, NA and AUS, respectively) and the least SEE. Merging both hemispheres data, AMAG60 explained 56% of MSP variations with the least SEE (R = 0.75, AR2 = 0.56, SEE = 57), while GL explained 17% (R = 0.41, AR2 = 0.17, SEE = 78.5) and AGRAPH60 explained 12% of that variations with the highest SEE (R = 0.35, AR2 = 0.12, SEE = 80.5). Conclusions Our results confirmed that AMAG60 is the best describer of MSP variations and has the strongest association with MSP distribution. They clarified that the well-known latitudinal gradient of MSP may be actually a gradient related to GM60L. Moreover, the location of GM60L can elucidate why MSP has parabolic and linear gradient in the north and south hemisphere, respectively. This preliminary evaluation supported that GMD can be the mysterious environmental risk factor for MS. We believe that this hypothesis deserves to be considered for further validation studies.
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