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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200510 matches for " P Jaret "
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A unique horizontal gene transfer event has provided the octocoral mitochondrial genome with an active mismatch repair gene that has potential for an unusual self-contained function
Jaret P Bilewitch, Sandie M Degnan
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-228
Abstract: The mtMutS gene has the expected conserved amino acids, protein domains and predicted tertiary protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that mtMutS is not a member of the MSH family and therefore not of eukaryotic origin. MtMutS clusters closely with representatives of the MutS7 lineage; further support for this relationship derives from the sharing of a C-terminal endonuclease domain that confers a self-contained mismatch repair function. Gene expression analyses confirm that mtMutS is actively transcribed in octocorals. Rates of mitochondrial gene evolution in mtMutS-containing octocorals are lower than in their hexacoral sister-group, which lacks the gene, although paradoxically the mtMutS gene itself has higher rates of mutation than other octocoral mitochondrial genes.The octocoral mtMutS gene is active and codes for a protein with all the necessary components for DNA mismatch repair. A lower rate of mitochondrial evolution, and the presence of a nicking endonuclease domain, both indirectly support a theory of self-sufficient DNA mismatch repair within the octocoral mitochondrion. The ancestral affinity of mtMutS to non-eukaryotic MutS7 provides compelling support for an origin by horizontal gene transfer. The immediate vector of transmission into octocorals can be attributed to either an epsilonproteobacterium in an endosymbiotic association or to a viral infection, although DNA viruses are not currently known to infect both bacteria and eukaryotes, nor mitochondria in particular. In consolidating the first known case of HGT into an animal mitochondrial genome, these findings suggest the need for reconsideration of the means by which metazoan mitochondrial genomes evolve.Animal mitochondrial genomes are generally conserved in structure, approximate size and gene content. The circular genome of the so-called higher metazoans typically encodes 13 proteins, 22 transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs, while lacking introns [1,2]. Variation in genome size us
Primary Amoebic (Naegleria fowleri) Meningoencephalitis Presenting as Status Epilepticus
A Sharma,R Raina,P Jaret,V Bharti
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare entity. Usual presenting features are fever, headache and seizures with meningeal signs and this disease carries high mortality rate. We present a case report of PAM presenting as status epilepticus.
The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake
Jaret Heise
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/606/1/012015
Abstract: The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.
Homological Algebra for Commutative Monoids
Jaret Flores
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We first study commutative, pointed monoids providing basic definitions and results in a manner similar commutative ring theory. Included are results on chain conditions, primary decomposition as well as normalization for a special class of monoids which lead to a study monoid schemes, divisors, Picard groups and class groups. It is shown that the normalization of a monoid need not be a monoid, but possibly a monoid scheme. After giving the definition of, and basic results for, $A$-sets, we classify projective $A$-sets and show they are completely determine by their rank. Subsequently, for a monoid $A$, we compute $K_0$ and $K_1$ and prove the Devissage Theorem for $G_0$. With the definition of short exact sequence for $A$-sets in hand, we describe the set $Ext(X,Y)$ of extensions for $A$-sets $X,Y$ and classify the set of square-zero extensions of a monoid $A$ by an $A$-set $X$ using the Hochschild cosimplicial set. We also examine the projective model structure on simplicial $A$-sets showcasing the difficulties involved in computing homotopy groups as well as determining the derived category for a monoid. The author defines the category $\operatorname{Da}(\mathcal{C})$ of double-arrow complexes for a class of non-abelian categories $\mathcal{C}$ and, in the case of $A$-sets, shows an adjunction with the category of simplicial $A$-sets.
Picard Groups and Class Groups of Monoid Schemes
Jaret Flores,Charles Weibel
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.jalgebra.2014.06.002
Abstract: We define and study the Picard group of a monoid scheme and the class group of a normal monoid scheme. To do so, we develop some ideal theory for (pointed abelian) noetherian monoids, including primary decomposition and discrete valuations. The normalization of a monoid turns out to be a monoid scheme, but not always a monoid.
In vivo clearance of surfactant lipids during acute pulmonary inflammation.
Jaret L Malloy, Jo Rae Wright
Respiratory Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-5-8
Abstract: Inflammation was induced by intrapulmonary instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS: 100 μg/kg). Lipid clearance was assessed at 18 and 72 hours post-LPS instillation by intratracheal administration of radiolabel surfactant-like liposomes 2 hours prior to isolation and analysis of inflammatory cells and type II cells.At both 18 and 72 hours after LPS instillation there was significantly less radioactivity recovered in the lavage fluid compared to respective control groups (p < 0.05). At both time points, the number of cells recovered by lavage and their associated radioactivity was greater compared to control groups (p < 0.01). There was no difference in recovery of radioactivity by isolated type II cells or other cells obtained from enzymatic digestion of lung tissue.These results show that increased clearance of surfactant lipids in our model of acute pulmonary inflammation is primarily due to the inflammatory cells recruited to the airspace and not increased uptake by alveolar type II cells.Pulmonary surfactant is a phospholipid-protein complex that lines the inner surface of the lung and is essential for normal pulmonary function. Surfactant acts to promote lung stability by reducing surface tension within the lung, while also protecting against inhaled pathogens. Surfactant is composed of approximately 90% lipids and 10% proteins by weight. The lipid component is primarily phospholipids with phosphatidylcholine (PC) being the most abundant, and the protein component comprised of four surfactant-associated proteins designated SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D [1]. The reduction of surface tension within the lung is a result of the interaction between surfactant phospholipids and the two hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C [1], while the two hydrophilic proteins, SP-A and SP-D, are members of a family of innate immune molecules called collectins [2]. Collectins opsonize bacteria and viruses and enhance their phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils [2].Alter
Cech cohomology over $\mathbb{F}_{1^2}$
Jaret Flores,Matt Szczesny,Oliver Lorscheid
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this text, we generalize Cech cohomology to sheaves $\mathcal F$ with values in blue $B$-modules where $B$ is a blueprint with $-1$. If $X$ is an object of the underlying site, then the cohomology sets $H^l(X,\mathcal F)$ turn out to be blue $B$-modules. For locally free $\mathcal O_X$-module $\mathcal F$ on a monoidal scheme $X$, we prove that $H^l(X,\mathcal F)^+=H^l(X^+,\mathcal F^+)$ where $X^+$ is the scheme associated with $X$ and $\mathcal F^+$ is the locally free $\mathcal O_{X^+}$-module associated with $\mathcal F$. In an appendix, we show that the naive generalization of cohomology as a right derived functor is infinite-dimensional for the projective line over $\mathbb F_1$.
Suburban Sprawl, Racial Segregation and Spatial Mismatch in Metropolitan America
Charles Jaret,Robert M. Adelman,Lesley Williams Reid
Sociation Today , 2006,
Abstract: Using multivariate models and newly available measures to measure Smart Growth, the issue of whether Smart Growth will help reduce racial separation is asked. Among the multiple findings is that metro areas with equal percentages of population living in the suburbs (and with other variables controlled), the ones with more sprawl (i.e. lower densities, long unconnected streets) have less black-white residential segregation.
Quantitative Phylogenetic Analysis in the 21st Century Análisis Filogenéticos Cuantitativos en el siglo XXI
Daniel R Brooks,Jaret Bilewitch,Charmaine Condy,David C Evans
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2007,
Abstract: We review Hennigian phylogenetics and compare it with Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood, and Bayesian likelihood approaches. All methods use the principle of parsimony in some form. Hennigian-based approaches are justified ontologically by the Darwinian concepts of phylogenetic conservatism and cohesion of homologies, embodied in Hennig's Auxiliary Principle, and applied by outgroup comparisons. Parsimony is used as an epistemological tool, applied a posteriori to choose the most robust hypothesis when there are conflicting data. Quantitative methods use parsimony as an ontological criterion: Maximum parsimony analysis uses unweighted parsimony, Maximum likelihood weight all characters equally that explain the data, and Bayesian likelihood relying on weighting each character partition that explains the data. Different results most often stem from insufficient data, in which case each quantitative method treats ambiguities differently. All quantitative methods produce networks. The networks can be converted into trees by rooting them. If the rooting is done in accordance with Hennig's Auxiliary Principle, using outgroup comparisons, the resulting tree can then be interpreted as a phylogenetic hypothesis. As the size of the data set increases, likelihood methods select models that allow an increasingly greater number of a priori possibilities, converging on the Hennigian perspective that nothing is prohibited a priori. Thus, all methods produce similar results, regardless of data type, especially when their networks are rooted using outgroups. Appeals to Popperian philosophy cannot justify any kind of phylogenetic analysis, because they argue from effect to cause rather than from cause to effect. Nor can particular methods be justified on the basis of statistical consistency, because all may be consistent or inconsistent depending on the data. If analyses using different types of data and/or different methods of phylogeny reconstruction do not produce the same results, more data are needed. Se revisa la sistemática filogenética Hennigiana y se compara con las aproximaciones de Máxima Parsimonia, Máxima Verosimilitud y verosimilitud Bayesiana. Todos los métodos utilizan el principio de la parsimonia en alguna forma. Las aproximaciones con bases Hennigianas se justifican ontológicamente con los conceptos Darwinianos de conservacionismo filogenético y cohesión de las homologías, representados en el Principio Auxiliar de Hennig, y aplicado en la comparación con el grupo externo. La Parsimonia se utiliza como una herramienta epistemológica, aplicada a poste
Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid
Matthew D. Trager,Matthew D. Thom,Jaret C. Daniels
International Journal of Ecology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/152139
Abstract: We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri). Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships. 1. Introduction For egg-laying animals that do not provide parental care, oviposition location is among the most important maternal decisions affecting subsequent offspring performance [1, 2]. Consequently, when growth and survival of immature stages are strongly influenced by other species—either positively or negatively—spatial patterns of oviposition often reflect these interactions [3–7]. In mutualistic relationships, we might expect preferential oviposition and improved performance when and where mutualists are present, but tradeoffs and constraints in both oviposition choices and immature growth strategies may make such simple correlations rare. Most lycaenid butterfly species interact with ants, and many of these relationships include substantial benefits for lycaenid larvae [8]. However, the costs and benefits of ant tending for larval growth of lycaenids vary substantially among systems. For example, larvae of Jalmenus evagoras and Glaucopsyche lygdamus pupate at a greater mass when untended by ants [9–11] but are dependent on ants for protection under natural conditions. By contrast, larvae of Paralucia aurifera and Hemiargus isola pupate at a greater mass and developed faster when reared with ants [12, 13]. Other studies have found that the consequences of ant tending on
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