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New Control Algorithm for Capacitor Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer  [PDF]
Bhim Singh, Pychadathil Jayaprakash, D.P. Kothari, Ambrish Chandra, Kamal- Al-Haddad
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.37045
Abstract: In this paper, a simple control algorithm for the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is proposed to mitigate the power quality problems in terminal voltage such as sag, swell, harmonics, unbalance etc. Two PI (proportional-integral) controllers are used each to regulate the dc bus voltage of DVR and the load terminal voltage respectively. The fundamental component of the terminal voltage is extracted using the synchronous reference frame theory. The control signal for the series connected DVR is obtained indirectly from the extracted reference load terminal voltage. The proposed DVR control strategy is validated through extensive simulation studies using MATLAB software with its Simulink and Sim-power system (SPS) block set tool boxes.
Política tributária e re-localiza??o
Domingues, Edson P.;Haddad, Eduardo A.;
Revista Brasileira de Economia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71402003000400009
Abstract: tax policy proposals usually do not take into account effects at sub-national levels. even when their spatial consequences are taken into account, the available information and analytical tools are not well suited to produce relevant insights to the policymaker. thus, sound methodological frameworks, built upon consistent regional data, are necessary. this paper deals with important methodological aspects in tax policy/reform studies: tax base endogeneity, changes in relative prices, and sectoral and regional substitution. these aspects can be quantitatively evaluated through inter-regional computable general equilibrium models. short-run and long-run spatial considerations can be rigorously assessed, producing relevant information to regional planning.
An eight-year study of the Thyroid cancer cases treated in Tehran Cancer Institute’s radiation-oncology Department
Amouzegar Hashemi F,Haddad P,Sajjadi M
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2001,
Abstract: A retrospective study was undertaken to examine the thyroid cancer cases referred for external radiotherapy to our department during the period of 1991-99. Within this period, a total of 33 patients had been treated by irradiation for thyroid cancer or its metastases and these cases were evaluated for age, sex, pathology and type of surgery. The reason of patients’ referral for external radiotherapy (The main aim of our study) was tumor extensive infiltration of the neck soft tissue and/or lymph nodes in 21 cases (64%), and tumor metastasis in 12 cases (36%). Twenty-one patients came back for follow-up, who were all symptom-free 12-18 months after irradiation.
The comparison between two different methods of radiotherapy in palliation and survival of patients with esophageal cancer
Keshvary M,Sajjadi M,Haddad P
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in our country. Patients often seek medical advice in advanced and inoperable stages or with cervical esophageal cancer, in which operation is accompanied by sever morbidity. In this conditions many of them cannot tolerate chemo-radiation, or refuse it. Therefore radiotherapy is applied as a single modality in palliation of many patients with esophageal cancer. One of the palliative radio therapeutic methods is application of 5000 CGY in 20 fractions (Long Course); but considering the great number of our patients and limited capacity of radiotherapy centers, as well as emphasis of literature on palliation with 4000 CGY in 13 fractions (short course), we decided to compare these two methods (which are both used in our departments). In this retrospective analytic study, the files of 283 patients with esophageal cancer referred to cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from 1989-1999 were studied. Patients were between 27-97 years old (mean age=58.3) and most of them were male (53.7 percent). The mean length of lesion was 8.5 cm. The most common site of lesion was middle third at esophagus (48.1 percent) and the most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (99.6 percent). Fifty-four percent of patients were hot tea drinkers habitually. From the mentioned variables, only length of lesion had significant relationship with overall survival (P=0.04). Thirty-eight of 283 patients were excluded from analytic study because of incomplete follow-up. The number of patients had been treated by long course (5000 CGY in 20 fractions) was 137 and the remainder (108 patients) by short course (4000 CGY in 13 fractions). No significant difference was seen statistically between these two groups in overall and dysphagia-free survival (Kaplan-Meyer test). Also total dosage of spinal cord is lower in the short course. Thus regarding to less required time in short course and comparable palliation and survival between two methods, the short course policy is more preferable in esophageal cancer patients.
LANGERHANS CELLS HISTIOCYTOSIS IN ONE FAMILY
Sh. Ansari,P. Vossough H. Haddad Deylami
Acta Medica Iranica , 2004,
Abstract: Histiocytosis of Langerhans cells (class 1 histiocytosis) consists of a range of clinical manifestations, including bone eosinophilic granuloma, Hand-Schüller-Christian syndrome, and Letterer-Siwe disease. These syndromes represent a spectrum of severity and prognosis of an underlying disorder which is usually sporadic. This report describes three cases in one family, who developed the disease a few years after their brother was discovered to have histiocytosis. All three patients had the same clinical manifestations. They had hyperthermia, eczematic rash, swelling in skull, hand and foot. Radiological data included lytic areas in the skull and fourth metacarpal. Serology for Epstein-Barr infection was negative. Infiltration of abnormal Langerhans cell histiocytes was demonstrated upon bone biopsy. Chemotherapy was administered. One case (male) died after a year of chemotherapy. In another case (female) chemotherapy was unsuccessful, but T-cell suppressor (cyclosporin) induced remission. In the third case (female), chemotherapy was successful.
"Radiotherapeutic management of early breast cancer after conservative surgery "
"Ghalibafian M,Haddad P,dehshiri K "
Acta Medica Iranica , 2000,
Abstract: Breast conservation surgery combined with radiation therapy is now an accepted option for the treatment of early breast cancer. So we decided to evaluate the results of such treatment in our first group of patients treated by this method. From 1992 to 1996 , one hundred patients with Stage I and II breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery (lumpectomy or quadrantectomy). Were irradated at Tehran Cancer Institue and Marie Curie Clinic. In stage II the whole breast and the draining lymph-node areas, and in stage I only the breast were irradiated to 50 Gray (Gy) in 5 weeks using cobat 60. a bososter dose of 10 Gy was given at the primary tumor site by photons in 1 weeks. Thirty- eight percent of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Tomoxifen was given to 96% . with a mean and median follow-up time of more than 3 years, three local recurrences and eight distant metastases occurred. The estimated 5 –year recurrence-free survival rate was 92% and the metastasis-free survival rate was 81%. Seventy-seven percent were disease-free with preserved breast. Young patient and those with positive margins had a higher risk for local failure. Nodal metastasis and the omission of adjuvant tamoxifen increased the distant failure rate. Complications were rare, excep for mild telangiectasia in four patients. The cosmetic result was exccllent or good in 90% of patients and the only factor with a statistically significant effect on cosmetic result was the treatment of both tangential fields per day.
Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Trends in Bahrain: Implications for Sexual Functions  [PDF]
Khalid A. J. Al-Khaja, Reginald P. Sequeira, Mohammed K. Al-Haddad, Adel R. Al-Offi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.34054
Abstract: Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is a frequent adverse effect of many psychotropic drugs. We have analyzed the prescribing trends and the likelihood of psychotropic-associated sexual dysfunction in outpatients with depression or other psychotic disorders treated by psychiatrists. A retrospective prescription audit was conducted at the Psychiatric Hospital, the only psychiatric facility in Bahrain that offers both inpatient and outpatient services. Psychotropic associated sexual dysfunction was graded as negligible (0), moderate (2+), moderately severe (3+) and uncertain (U) for antidepressants, and for antipsychotics as no effect (0), very low (1+), moderate (2+), moderately severe (3+) and uncertain (U) effect. As antidepressant monotherapy, a significant trend towards prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; 3+) and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; 3+) in females, and tricyclic antide-pressants (TCAs; 2+) in males was apparent. Atypical antidepressant mirtazapine (0) monotherapy was rarely prescribed. Mirtazapine with SSRIs or SNRI was the most often prescribed combinations followed by TCAs with other antidepressants. Risperidone (0 to 3+), an atypical antipsychotic, was the most popular antipsychotic prescribed to augment antidepressants; there was no gender-based difference. Clozapine (0) and olanzapine (1+) were rarely prescribed to augment antidepressant therapy. In Bahrain, the psychotropic prescribing trends suggest that there is a need to optimize drug therapy to achieve the therapeutic goal with minimal adverse impact on sexual function.
Antipsychotic and Anticholinergic Drug Prescribing Pattern in Psychiatry: Extent of Evidence-Based Practice in Bahrain  [PDF]
Khalid A. J. Al Khaja, Mohammed K. Al-Haddad, Reginald P. Sequeira, Adel R. Al-Offi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.34055
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the antipsychotic prescribing pattern and the prevalence of concurrent anticholinergic prescribing in a psychiatric referral hospital. A retrospective audit of prescriptions issued for outpatients was carried out at the Psychiatric Hospital, the only facility that provides psychiatric services for both inpatients and outpatients in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Antipsychotic monotherapy was prescribed for 89.2% patients, whereas polytherapy with two- and three-drugs in 10.4 and 0.4%, respectively. Atypical antipsychotics were prescribed more often (67.7%) than typical antipsychotics. Risperidone and haloperidol were the most frequently prescribed antipsychotics. Long-acting risperidone injection was the only depot preparation prescribed. The mean antipsychotic dose expressed as chlorpromazine equivalent (CPZeq; mg/day) was 242 (220 for monotherapy and 414 for polytherapy). The prevalence of high dose antipsychotic (mean CPZeq > 1000 mg/day) was 1.8%, prescribed at a mean CPZeq dose of 1531 (1925 for monotherapy and 1137 for polytherapy), mainly attributed to haloperidol. Anticholinergics were co-prescribed for almost two third of patients receiving antipsychotics, particularly for those on polytherapy (monotherapy 57.3%; poly-therapy 87.5%). Antipsychotic polytherapy, high dose and co-prescription of an oral with a depot antipsychotic preparation were strongly associated with concurrent prescription of anticholinergics. Procyclidine and orphenadrine were the most often prescribed anticholinergics. In Bahrain, antipsychotic monotherapy is a common practice for outpatients with psychotic disorders. Some of the antipsychotic polytherapies, dosage strategies, and high prevalence of anticholinergic use are therapeutic issues that need to be addressed to foster evidence-based prescribing practice.
The Effect of Heavy Metals Cadimium, Chromium and Iron Accumulation in Human Eyes  [PDF]
Hanaa H. Haddad
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.310094
Abstract: The object of the present study is to measure the concentrations of toxic heavy metals in human eyes (cadimium and chromium) and major mineral iron ion. The heavy metals cadimium, chromium and iron were assayed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Metals determination in human eye is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening diagnosis and assessment of metals exposures and their risks. The statistical analysis of the metals (cadimium, chromium and iron) levels in human eyes showed that levels of the three metals in non-smoker were lower than metals contents of the smoker groups. Metals levels in human eyes of males were significantly lower than females. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed between persons living in city centre and others who living in outskirt for concentrations of all three metals. Geographical influences are thought to be the main source of variability.
The molecular regulatory effect of intracerebroventricular thymulin on endotoxin-mediated NF-kB nuclear translocation and activation in vivo  [PDF]
John J. Haddad
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2013.31006
Abstract: The nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) is one member of a ubiquitously expressed family of Rel-related transcription factors that serve as critical regulators of proinflammatory genes. The immunomodulatory potential of thymulin and its effect on NF-kB in vivo, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS), is not well characterized. In this study, the role of endotoxin (ET) in regulating NF-kB was unraveled in various compartments of the CNS. Stereotaxic localization reverberated specific intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ET into the CNS, with or without pretreatment with ICV thymulin. Treatment with ET upregulated the expression and nuclear trans-localization of NF-kB1 (p50), NF-kB2 (p52), RelA (p65), RelB (p68) and c-Rel (p75) in the hippocampus (HC), an effect abrogated by ICV pretreatment with thymulin. Thymulin modulated the phosphorylation of IkB-a in the HC by upregulating the cytosolic
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