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Protective Effects of Some Medicinal Plants from Lamiaceae Family Against Beta-Amyloid Induced Toxicity in PC12 Cell
P Balali,M Soodi,S Saeidnia
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Excessive accumulation of beta-amyliod peptide (Aβ), the major component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), causes neuronal cell death through induction of oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidants may be of use in the treatment of AD. The medicinal plants from the Lamiaceae family have been widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. These plants contain compounds with antioxidant activity and some species in this family have been reported to have neuroprotective properties. In the present study, methanolic extract of seven plants from salvia and satureja species were evaluated for their protective effects against beta-amyloid induced neurotoxicity.Methods: Aerial parts of the plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively, by percolation at room temperature and subsequently, methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared. PC12 cells were incubated with different concentrations of the extracts in culture medium 1h prior to incubation with Aβ. Cell toxicity was assessed 24h after addition of Aβ by MTT assay.Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Salvia officinalis and Salvia macrosiphon methanolic extracts exhibited high protective effects against Aβ induced toxicity (P<0.001). Protective effects of Satureja bachtiarica and Salvia officinalis were dose-dependent.Conclusion: The main constituents of these extracts are polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds such as rosmarinic acid, naringenin, apigenin and luteolin which have antioxidant properties and may have a role in neuroprotection. Based on neuroprotective effect of these plants against Aβ induced toxicity, we recommend greater attention to their use in the treatment of Alzheimer disease.
Nursing Care of Acute Sulfur Mustard Poisoning
M Rejaei,P Rejaei,M Balali-Mood
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2010,
Abstract:
Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 2C9
Vlad Cojocaru ,Kia Balali-Mood,Mark S. P. Sansom,Rebecca C. Wade
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002152
Abstract: The microsomal, membrane-bound, human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 is a liver-specific monooxygenase essential for drug metabolism. CYPs require electron transfer from the membrane-bound CYP reductase (CPR) for catalysis. The structural details and functional relevance of the CYP-membrane interaction are not understood. From multiple coarse grained molecular simulations started with arbitrary configurations of protein-membrane complexes, we found two predominant orientations of CYP2C9 in the membrane, both consistent with experiments and conserved in atomic-resolution simulations. The dynamics of membrane-bound and soluble CYP2C9 revealed correlations between opening and closing of different tunnels from the enzyme's buried active site. The membrane facilitated the opening of a tunnel leading into it by stabilizing the open state of an internal aromatic gate. Other tunnels opened selectively in the simulations of product-bound CYP2C9. We propose that the membrane promotes binding of liposoluble substrates by stabilizing protein conformations with an open access tunnel and provide evidence for selective substrate access and product release routes in mammalian CYPs. The models derived here are suitable for extension to incorporate other CYPs for oligomerization studies or the CYP reductase for studies of the electron transfer mechanism, whereas the modeling procedure is generally applicable to study proteins anchored in the bilayer by a single transmembrane helix.
Effect of pot size, planting date and genotype on minituber production of Marfona potato cultivar
GR Balali, MR Hadi, P Yavari, H Bidram, AG Naderi, A Eslami
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of pot size, planting date and type of genotype on mini-tuber production of Marfona potato cultivar (Solanum tuberosum L.) in greenhouse conditions. Four genotypes (M-129, M-128P, M-127P and M-124P) originated from virus free sprouts and a genotype of the same cultivar (Marfona) originated from apical meristem, in 3 sizes of pot and 3 planting date were investigated. The results showed that using larger pots of 3-liter has no advantage and pots smaller than 2-liter is not suitable for mini-tuber production. Also, time of Nov 18 was the best of date for planting of potato in studied conditions and delay in date of planting reduced the mini-tuber production. The reduction in number of mini-tubers and growing period was greater for the genotype M- 129 compared with the other potato genotypes. Furthermore, higher numbers of mini-tubers were produced by the M-127P and M-124P genotypes and M-127P had the highest total weight of mini-tubers. However the number of mini-tubers per plant was higher for genotypes originated from meristem culture than genotypes obtained from sprouts. It seems that genotypes originated from potato sprouts are not as efficient as the apical meristem ones. On the other hand, later genotype showed more homogenous in growth rate and phenotype.
The Treatment of Morton’s Neuroma, a Significant Cause of Metatarsalgia for People Who Exercise  [PDF]
Balalis Konstantine, Topalidou Anastasia, Balali Catherine, Tzagarakis George, Katonis Pavlos
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.41005
Abstract:

Morton’s Neuroma is a common metatarsalgia in athletes created due to the entrapment of the inter-digital nerve inside the transverse inter-metatarsal ligament. The purpose of the present study is to draw the necessary conclusions from the use of a particular surgical treatment to release the digital nerve, accompanied by neurolysis in adults who exercise. On the whole, twenty five patients with twenty-five suffering extremities were treated. Five of them simultaneously had a Hallux Valgus type deformity and that supports the belief of the mechanical induce of this condition. Both ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were used for the clinical evaluation of this condition. The pain was estimated via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The patients were re-examined after three (1st postoperative), twelve (2nd postoperative) and twenty-four (3rd postoperative) months. A significant improvement (p < 0.0001) was noticed from the correlation between the pain before the surgery and the pain after the surgery via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Most patients (15/25) did not display any discomfort or sensory disorder after surgery. The correct clinical evaluation as well as the correct and effective surgical intervention with the simultaneous repair of all the mechanical deformities of the foot provided better post-surgery progress in patients and increased the percentage of their rehabilitation of their previous activities.

Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans
Mahdi Balali-Mood,Beeta Balali-Mood
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.
Variability of leaf Cadmium content in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat
Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija,Mladenov Novica,Balali? Igor,Zori? Miroslav
Genetika , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0901001k
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace metal pollutant for humans, animals, and plants. It is a heavy metal present in soils from natural and anthropogenic sources. Much of the Cd taken up by plants is retained in the root, but a portion is translocated to the aerial portions of the plant and into the seed. The objective of this research was to determine the variability and diversity of Cd content in the leaves of 30 wheat cultivars with different ploidy level, during two years. Analyses of Cd content (ppm) in the leaves at heading stage were performed with an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Significant differences between the mean values of the genotypes in Cd content were found. Tetraploid wheat genotypes had higher Cd content than hexaploid genotypes. Cd content was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (73%). The influence of genotype on Cd content amounted 16% and the interaction genotype × year 11%. The cluster of the genotypes consists of four groups. In the groups three and four were some of the genotypes (Kalyan Sona, Partizanka and NS Rana 5) with lowest Cd content in the leaves. They could be chosen as parents in the hybridization for lower cadmium concentration.
Chronic health effects of sulphur mustard exposure with special reference to Iranian veterans
B Balali-Mood,SH Mousavi,M Balali-Mood
Emerging Health Threats Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.3134/ehtj.08.007
Abstract: The widespread use of sulphur mustard (SM) as an incapacitating chemical warfare agent in the past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. It may also be used as a chemical terrorist agent. Therefore, all health professionals should have sufficient knowledge and be prepared for any such chemical attack. SM exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, immunological, haematological, digestive, and reproductive systems. SM is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis, and, thus, delayed complications have been seen since the First World War. Cases of malignancies in the target organs, particularly in haematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systems, have been reported. Important delayed respiratory complications include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deteriorate with time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction of natural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infections and malignancies are also among the most distressing long-term consequences of SM intoxication. However, despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunction, as well as the relationship between SM exposure and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity are important fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranian veterans with chronic health effects of SM poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on the medical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of SM poisoning—a subject that greatly challenges health care specialists.
Correlations among yield components in durum wheat
Gorjanovi? Biljana,Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija
Genetika , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0602115g
Abstract: The main reason that makes breeding for the main yield components difficult is that they are in negative correlation with each other. Numerous researchers have studied relations between yield and different yield components in order to find dependable selection criteria. The goal of this paper is to estimate the variability and correlations between yield components. The experiment was conducted on twelve durum wheat genotypes. Plant height was in both years positively correlated with number of spikelets per spike and negatively correlated with spike length. grain weight per spike. number of grains per spike and harvest index. Spike length was positively correlated with grain weight per spike and number of grains per spike. in both years and with harvest index only in the first year. while it was negatively correlated with number of spikelets per spike in the first year. Number of spikelets was in negative correlations with grain weight per spike and number of grains per spike in the first year and with harvest index in both years of investigations. Grain weight per spike was positively correlated with number of grain per spike and harvest index in both years. Number of grains per spike was in positive correlation with harvest index in both years of investigations.
Genetic analysis for grain weight per spike and harvest index in macaroni wheat
Gorjanovi? Biljana,Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija
Genetika , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0401023g
Abstract: Using the line x tester analysis (Sing and Choudhary, 1979), we studied the combining ability, gene effects and mode of inheritance of grain weight per spike and harvest index, using 5 females, 3 testers and 15 hybrids of durum wheat. The results of the study show that non-additive genes play the more important role than additive in the inheritance of grain weight per spike and harvest index. The mode of inheritance of characters under study depended on the cross combination and the year of growing. In most cases the mode of inheritance was dominant. The estimates of general combining ability (GCA) pointed out that none of the genotypes in the first year of research had the significant GCA for grain weight per spike, while in the second year the best combiner was Kunduru. For the harvest index the best general combiner, in the first year, was Monodur, while in the second year the best combiner was Mexicali 75. In majority of the cases positive specific combining ability (SCA) effect were usually associated with crosses of two genetically divergent parents having at least one parent as a good general combiner.
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