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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 489 matches for " Oviedo Pro "
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La renta ambiental de los bosques
Campos Palacín, Pablo,Caparrós Grass, Alejandro,Oviedo Pro, José L.,Ovando Pol, Paola
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2008, DOI: 10.3989/arbor.2008.i729.161
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to show the measurement of the environmental income from two private Spanish forests, the Cork Oak Woodlands of the Alcornocales Natural Park (Cádiz and Málaga) and the Scotch Pine Forest of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid and Segovia). We also contribute to the technical and political debate on governmental regulations of forest environmental accounting in European Union. We have measured the environmental goods and services consumed by private landowners and public visitors through the contingent valuation technique. We have estimated the value of mushrooms gathering by public visitors in the Scotch Pine Forests of the Sierra de Guadarrama taking the price and harvest from the mushroom market in Pinar Grande (Soria). The value for carbon estimated accounts for the avoided damage of the greenhouse effect mitigation due to the sequestration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The environmental valuations show that the private environmental profitability rates in the Alcornocales Natural Park and in the Sierra de Guadarrama are 2.13 % and 3.43 %, in relation to their corresponding land market prices. We have estimated that the total net values added are 1.63 and 3.28 times higher than its corresponding conventional net values added in the Alcornocales Natural Park and in the Sierra de Guadarrama. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una medición de la renta ambiental en dos tipos de bosques privados representativos espa oles, como son los alcornocales del Parque Natural Los Alcornocales (Cádiz y Málaga) y los pinares de silvestre de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid y Segovia). Con este objetivo también se pretende contribuir a los debates técnico y político sobre la necesidad de que los gobiernos regulen la aplicación de las cuentas ambientales integradas de los bosques europeos. La medición de los bienes y servicios ambientales del bosque consumidos por los propietarios privados y los visitantes públicos se ha realizado aplicando la técnica de valoración contingente. El valor de las setas recogidas por el público en los pinares de la Sierra de Guadarrama ha sido estimado aceptando los datos de precio y rendimiento del mercado de setas en Pinar Grande (Soria). La estimación del valor del carbono refleja el valor del da o evitado de la mitigación del efecto invernadero de la reducción del dióxido de carbono atmosférico. Las valoraciones ambientales muestran que las tasas de rentabilidad ambientales privadas del Parque Natural Los Alcornocales y de los pinares de la Sierra de Guadarrama alcanzan el 2,13 % y el 3,43 %, con
Sagitta, Lenses, and Maximal Volume
Curtis Pro
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We give a characterization of critical points that allows us to define a metric invariant on all Riemannian manifolds $M$ with a lower sectional curvature bound and an upper radius bound. We show there is a uniform upper volume bound for all such manifolds with an upper bound on this invariant. We generalize results by Grove and Petersen and by Sill, Wilhelm, and the author by showing any such $M$ that has volume sufficiently close to this upper bound is diffeomorphic to the standard sphere $S^{n}$ or a standard lens space $S^n/\mathbb{Z}_m$ where $m\in\{2,3,\ldots\}$ is no larger than an a priori constant.
RELAP5 Calculations of Bethsy 9.1b Test
Andrej Pro?ek
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/238090
Abstract: Recently, several advanced computational tools for simulating reactor system behavior during real and hypothetical transient scenarios were developed. The TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE) is the latest in a series of advanced, best-estimate reactor system codes developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). Nevertheless, the RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code will be maintained in the next years. The purpose of the present study was to assess how the accuracy of Bethsy 9.1b test calculation depends on the US NRC RELAP5 code version used. Bethsy 9.1b test (International Standard Problem no. 27) was 5.08?cm equivalent diameter cold leg break without high-pressure safety injection and with delayed ultimate procedure. Seven different RELAP5 code versions were used and as much as possible the same input model. The obtained results indicate that the results obtained by the oldest and latest RELAP5 versions are in general comparable for Bethsy 9.1b test. This is very important for the validity of the results, obtained in the past with older RELAP5 versions. Due to the fact that observation was restricted to Bethsy 9.1b posttest, with its own physical phenomena, this conclusion could be generalized only for scenarios having similar range of the considered Bethsy transient conditions. 1. Introduction Recently, several advanced computational tools for simulating reactor system behavior during real and hypothetical transient scenarios were developed. In the past, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) RELAP5 computer code was one of the most used in the international community. Since the release of RELAP5/MOD2 in 1985 the code was continuously improved and extended. Several new models, improvements to existing models, and user conveniences have been added to the latest RELAP5/MOD3.3 Patch 04 release in 2010 [1]. In the past, the Jo?ef Stefan Institute (JSI) activities in the area of RELAP5 analyses have been aimed also to extend the experiences in simulations of small break loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and two-phase natural circulation cooling. Therefore, its own RELAP5 input model of Bethsy facility [2] has been developed. The Bethsy-experiences-based improved modeling methods have been used in simulations of real plant transients and evaluation of plant accident management procedures [3–5]. In 1996 the BETHSY 9.1b test has been analyzed with three different versions of RELAP5 code (MOD2, MOD3.1, and MOD3.1.2 without any modification of the codes and with guidelines consideration) using experimental data
"El uso de los recursos energéticos". Una unidad didáctica para la asignatura Ciencias para el Mundo Contemporáneo
Antonio de Pro Bueno
Revista Eureka sobre Ense?anza y Divulgación de las Ciencias , 2009,
Abstract: La inclusión de la asignatura Ciencias para el Mundo Contemporáneo en el Bachillerato puede suponer un cambio profundo en la ense anza de las Ciencias. No obstante, la presencia curricular no es suficiente y es preciso clarificar cuestiones importantes: qué sepretende con esta asignatura, qué tipo de contenidos aborda, cómo debe enfocarse el trabajo en el aula, etc. Creemos que, en este momento, es necesario conocer propuestas y actividades concretas que clarifiquen y orienten al profesorado que debe ense arla. Nuestrotrabajo aborda el proceso de planificación de una unidad didáctica: “El uso de los recursos energéticos”. Este proceso consta de seis tareas: análisis del contenido de ense anza; análisis de los problemas de aprendizaje de los mismos; análisis del contexto;determinación de objetivos de ense anza; establecimiento de una secuencia de actividades; y selección de estrategias de evaluación
Flats and Submersions in Non-Negative Curvature
Curtis Pro,Frederick Wilhelm
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We find constraints on the extent to which O'Neill's horizontal curvature equation can be used to create positive curvature on the base space of a Riemannian submersion. In particular, we study when K. Tapp's theorem on Riemannian submersions of compact Lie groups with bi-invariant metrics generalizes to arbitrary manifolds of non-negative curvature.
Riemannian Submersions Need Not Preserve Positive Ricci Curvature
Curtis Pro,Frederick Wilhelm
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: If $\pi :M\rightarrow B$ is a Riemannian Submersion and $M$ has positive sectional curvature, O'Neill's Horizontal Curvature Equation shows that $B$ must also have positive curvature. We show there are Riemannian submersions from compact manifolds with positive Ricci curvature to manifolds that have small neighborhoods of (arbitrarily) negative Ricci curvature, but that there are no Riemannian submersions from manifolds with positive Ricci curvature to manifolds with nonpositive Ricci curvature.
Discounting future pain: Effects on self-reported pain  [PDF]
Pablo Bra?as-Garza, Maria P. Espinosa, Maria Repolles Pro
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2010.11002
Abstract: Empirical results are presented showing that people who acknowledge pain anticipation when expecting an injury experience higher sensitivity to pain (GREP, Robinson et al., 2001). The positive correlation between sensitivity and anticipation is highly significant. However, no relationship is found between anticipation and pain endurance.
Qué estamos ense ando con los libros de texto? La electricidad y la electrónica de Tecnología en 3o ESO
Carlos de Pro Chereguini,Antonio de Pro Bueno
Revista Eureka sobre Ense?anza y Divulgación de las Ciencias , 2011,
Abstract: Este trabajo trata de dar respuestas al interrogante: Qué estamos ense ando con los libros de texto en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria? En primer lugar, revisamos los trabajos realizados sobre estos materiales en Espa a y, a pesar de la importancia que tienen en nuestro sistema educativo, no hemos encontrado muchos quese hayan ocupado de aquellos que se elaboraron durante la Reforma LOE. Nos centramos en algunos elementos que consideramos fundamentales en estos recursos didácticos: la estructura de las lecciones y los tipos de contenidos (conceptos, procedimientos y actitudes) a través del análisis de las actividades de aprendizajeplanteadas por seis libros de texto de editoriales conocidas, relativas al bloque “Electricidad y electrónica” de Tecnología de 3o ESO, y su adecuación o no a la normativa vigente en la CARM. Los resultados muestran algunas de las carencias y deficiencias existentes, y que los libros de texto, en general, no se acomodan a lo que marca el currículum oficial.
RELAP5/MOD3.3 Code Validation with Plant Abnormal Event
Andrej Pro ek,Borut Mavko
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/745178
Abstract: Measured plant data from various abnormal events are of great importance for code validation. The purpose of the study was to validate the RELAP5/MOD3.3 Patch 03 computer code with the abnormal event which occurred at Krško Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 10, 2005. The event analyzed was a malfunction, which occurred during a power reduction sequence when regular periodic testing of the turbine valves was performed. Unexpected turbine valve closing caused safety injection signal, followed by reactor trip. The RELAP5 input model delivered by Krško NPP was used. In short term, the calculation agrees very well with the plant measured data. In the long term, this is also true when operator actions and special plant systems are modeled. In the opposite, the transient would progress quite differently. Finally, the calculated data may be supplemental to plant measured data when the information is missing or the measurement is questionable.
RELAP5/MOD3.3 Best Estimate Analyses for Human Reliability Analysis
Andrej Pro?ek,Borut Mavko
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/797193
Abstract: To estimate the success criteria time windows of operator actions the conservative approach was used in the conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The current PSA standard recommends the use of best-estimate codes. The purpose of the study was to estimate the operator action success criteria time windows in scenarios in which the human actions are supplement to safety systems actuations, needed for updated human reliability analysis (HRA). For calculations the RELAP5/MOD3.3 best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code and the qualified RELAP5 input model representing a two-loop pressurized water reactor, Westinghouse type, were used. The results of deterministic safety analysis were examined what is the latest time to perform the operator action and still satisfy the safety criteria. The results showed that uncertainty analysis of realistic calculation in general is not needed for human reliability analysis when additional time is available and/or the event is not significant contributor to the risk. 1. Introduction The experience accumulated in the last few decades has shown that human factors play a significant role in the risk of system failures and accidents, throughout the life cycle of a system. This explains significant focus on human reliability analysis (HRA) and on its full integration within systematic risk analysis and reliability assessment procedures [1]. A major problem in meeting this growing importance of HRA is the lack of empirical plant specific data needed for assessment of human reliability. In general, there are several information requirements for HRA, including the available time for diagnosis and correct execution of a tasks, steps, and actions (i.e., time window for action) [2]. This information comes from the deterministic analysis. The time window for human action actually represents the success criteria for the action. It represents the time interval in which operators have to perform the action in order that the plant is put in a safer state, that is, the plant is put into a scenario that leads to a safe state and not to an accident state. To estimate the time windows for operator actions the results of fast running severe accident code such as the MAAP code have been used in the conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). However, information from these is often too conservative to perform a realistic PSA for a risk-informed application [3]. In the last years a few comparative studies were performed to justify the use of MAAP4 for the PSA Level 1 analysis of advanced reactors [4, 5]. In the
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