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Calculation of the Masses of All Fundamental Elementary Particles with an Accuracy of Approx. 1%  [PDF]
Karl Otto Greulich
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.15042
Abstract: The masses of a l l fundamental elementary particles (those with a lifetime > 10-24 sec) can be calculated with an inaccuracy of approx. 1% using the equation m/melectron = N/2α where α is the coupling constant of quantum electrodynamics (also known as fine structure constant) (= 1/137.036), and N is an integer variable. This is the by far most accurate and most comprehensive approach to calculate the particle masses.
Modeling of a Cubic Antiferromagnetic Cuprate Super-Cage  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53018
Abstract: Convex polyhedral cuprate clusters are being formed through lateral frustration when the a and c lattice parameters of the tetragonal ACuO2 infinite layer structure will become identical by substitution of a large cation (A = Ba2+). However, the corner-shared CuO2 plaquettes of the infinite network suffer a topotactic rearrangement forming edge-connected units, for instance Cu18O24 cages (polyhedron notation [4641238]) with <90° ferromagnetic super-exchange interaction as found in cubic BaCuO2. Cage formation via a hypothetical tetragonal BaCuO2 compound (space group P4/ nmm) will be discussed. The possibility to construct a cuprate super-cage with m3m symmetry (polyhedron notation [4641242438]) is being reported. This super-cage still consists of edge-connected CuO2 plaquettes when fully decorated with copper ions, but with different curvatures, arranged in circles of 9.39 ? of diameter with 139.2° Cu-O-Cu antiferromagnetic super-exchange interaction. On the one hand, the realization of such a quite stable cuprate super-cage as a candidate for high-Tc superconductivity depends on whether a template of suitable size such as the \"\"cation or C(CH3)4 enables its formation, and on the other hand the cage can further be stabilized by highly charged cations located along the [111] direction. Synthesis options will be proposed based on suggested cage formation pathways. An X-ray powder pattern was calculated for a less dense cluster structure of Im3m space group with a lattice parameter of a = 14.938 ? and two formula units of Cu46O51 to facilitate future identification. Characteristic X-ray scattering features as identification tool were obtained when the electron distribution of the hollow polyhedron was approximated with electron density in a spherical shell.
Pyroelectric Bi5-x(Bi2S3)39I12S: Fibonacci Superstructure, Synthesis Options and Solar Cell Potential  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.52010
Abstract: Previously, synthetic hexagonal bismuth sulfide iodide (polar space group P63, a = 15.629(3) ?, c = 4.018(1) ?, Z = 2) has been described by the rather unsatisfactory fractional formula Bi19/3IS9 [1]-[3]. A redetermination of the structure using old but reliable photographic intensity data indicated the presence of additional split positions and reduced atomic occupancies. From the observed pattern of this “averaged” structure a consistent model of a superstructure with lattice parameters of a' = √13·a = 56.35(1) ?, c' = c, and a formula Bi5-x(Bi2S3)39I12S emerged, with 2 formula units in a cell of likewise P63 space group. Structural modulation may be provoked by the space the lone electron pair of Bi requires. When Bi on the 0, 0, z position of the “averaged” cell is transferred to two general six-fold sites and one unoccupied twofold one of the super-cell, more structural stability is guaranteed due to compensation of its basal plane dipole momentum. Owing to the limited intensity data available, more details of the superstructure are not accessible yet. Some physical properties and solar cell application are discussed together with suggestions of ambient temperature synthesis routes of c-axis oriented nano-rod sheets.
A Different Approach to High-Tc Superconductivity: Indication of Filamentary-Chaotic Conductance and Possible Routes to Room Temperature Superconductivity  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.63023
Abstract: The empirical relation of \"\" between the transition temperature of optimum doped superconductors Tco and the mean cationic charge \"\" , a physical paradox, can be recast to strongly support fractal theories of high-Tc superconductors, thereby applying the finding that the optimum hole concentration of σo = 0.229 can be linked with the universal fractal constant δ1 = 8.72109… of the renormalized quadratic Hénon map. The transition temperature obviously increases steeply with a domain structure of ever narrower size, characterized by Fibonacci numbers. However, also conventional BCS superconductors can be scaled with δ1, exemplified through the energy gap relation kBTc ≈ 5Δ01, suggesting a revision of the entire theory of superconductivity. A low mean cationic charge allows the development of a frustrated nano-sized fractal structure of possibly ferroelastic nature delivering nano-channels for very fast charge transport, in common for both high-Tc superconductor and organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar materials. With this backing superconductivity above room temperature can be conceived for synthetic sandwich structures of \"\" less than 2+. For instance, composites of tenorite and cuprite respectively tenorite and CuI (CuBr, CuCl) onto AuCu alloys are proposed. This specification is suggested by previously described filamentary superconductivity of “bulk” CuO1x samples. In addition, cesium substitution in the Tl-1223 compound is an option.
Crystal Growth of Cu6(Ge,Si)6O18·6H2O and Assignment of UV-VIS Spectra in Comparison to Dehydrated Dioptase and Selected Cu(II) Oxo-Compounds Including Cuprates  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2017.73006
Abstract: Low-dimensional quantum spin systems with the Cu2+ central ion are still in the focus of experimental and theoretical research. Here is reported on growth of mm-sized single-crystals of the low-dimensional S = 1/2 spin compound Cu6(Ge,Si)6O18·6H2O by a diffusion technique in aqueous solution. A route to form Si-rich crystals down to possible dioptase, the pure silicate, is discussed. Motivated by previously reported incorrect assignments of UV-VIS spectra, the assignment of dd excitations from such spectra of the hexahydrate and the fully dehydrated compound is proposed in comparison to dioptase and selected Cu(II) oxo-compounds using bond strength considerations. Non-doped cuprates as layer compounds show higher excitation energies than the title compound. However, when the antiferromagnetic interaction energy as Jz·ln(2) is taken into account for cuprates, a single linear relationship between the Dqe excitation energy and equatorial Cu(II)-O bond strength is confirmed for all compounds. A linear representation is also confirmed between 2A1g energies and a function of axial and equatorial Cu-O bond distances if auxiliary axial bonds are used for four-coordinated compounds. The quotient Dt/Ds of experimental orbital energies deviating from the general trend to smaller values indicates the existence of H2O respectively Cl axial ligands in comparison to oxo-ligands, whereas larger Dt/Dqe values indicate missing axial bonds. The quotient of the excitation energy
Mass Constituents of a Flat Lattice Multiverse: Conclusion from Similarity between Two Universal Numbers, the Rocksalt-Type 2D Madelung Constant and the Golden Mean  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.91001
Abstract: In fairly good agreement with the consensus range of dark energy to matter this ratio of the critical density is suggested to be connected with the golden mean φ=0.6180339887, yielding for dark energy to matter mass fractions \"\".?Assuming the baryonic matter to be only 4.432%, the ratio of matter to baryonic matter would be \"\", and further the ratio of dark matter to baryonic one \"\". If one subtracts from the dark matter a contribution of antimatter with the same mass of baryonic matter, according to the antigravity theories of Villata respectively Hajdukovic, the remaining mass ratio would yield \"\". Replacing the “Madelung” constant α of Villata’s “lattice universe” by φ, one reaches again 1 + φ as the ratio of the repulsive mass contribution to the attractive one. Assuming instead of a 3D lattice a flat 2D one of rocksalt type, the numerical similarity between the Madelung constant \"\" and φ1 could not be just coincidence. The proposed scaling of the cosmological mass fractions with the square of the most irrational universal number φ may indicate that the chaotic cosmological processes have reached a quite stable equilibrium. This may be confirmed by another, but similar representation of the mass constituents by the Archimedes’ constant π, giving for \"\"respectively for the dark components \"\". However, the intimate connection of φ with its reciprocal may ignite the discussion whether our universe is intertwined with another universe or even part of a multiverse with the dark constituents contributed from there.
Modelling Large Scale Invasion of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes  [PDF]
Wenkui He, Otto Richter
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.83013
Abstract: The principle aim of this work is to simulate the invasion of two invasive mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in central Europe at a landscape scale. The spatial-temporal dynamics of invasion is investigated in dependence of predation pressure, seasonal variation of ambient temperature as well as human population density. The introduction of temperature dependent entomological parameters enables the simulation of seasonal pattern of population dynamics. The influence of temperature, predation pressure and human population density on invasion is studied in one-dimensional cases. In two dimensions, georeferenced parameters such as annual mean temperature and human population density are prepared by a geographical information system and introduced into the finite element tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The results show that under the current temperature, central Europe cannot become a permanent breeding region for Aedes aegypti. However, southwest Germany especially the regions along the Upper Rhine Valley may provide suitable habitats for the permanent establishment of Aedes albopictus. An annual temperature rise of two degrees would lead to dramatic increase of invasion speed and extension range of Aedes albopictus.
Reciprocity Relation between the Mass Constituents of the Universe and Hardy’s Quantum Entanglement Probability  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2018.82003
Abstract: In this short contribution, a reciprocity relation between mass constituents of the universe was explained governed by Hardy’s maximum entanglement probability of φ5 = 0.09017. While well explainable through a set-theoretical argumentation, the relation may also be a consequence of a coupling factor attributed to the normed dimensions of the universe. Also, very simple expressions for the mass amounts were obtained, when replacing the Golden Mean φ by the Archimedes constant π. A brief statement was devoted to the similarity between the E-Infinity Theory of El Naschie and the Information Relativity Theory of Suleiman. In addition, superconductivity was also linked with Hardy’s entanglement probability.
Super-Hydrides of Lanthanum and Yttrium: On Optimal Conditions for Achieving near Room Temperature Superconductivity  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2019.91002
Abstract: Recently, many seminal papers deal with the syntheses, stability and superconducting properties of super-hydrides like LaH10 or YH10 under high pressure, reporting critical temperatures near room temperature. In the first run one will assume that the involved metal atoms contribute a number of 3 electrons to the pairing pool corresponding to their valence. However, another possibility may be that the cationic valence is somewhat smaller, for instance only 2.29, resulting in a nominal electron number per cation of σ0 = 0.229 ≈ 3/13 instead of 0.3. Then, we will have a numerical equality to the optimum hole number in the cuprate high-Tc superconductors, a number that reflects the fractal nature of electronic response in superconductors. However, if one still keeps up the oxidation state of +3 of lanthanum, one will need 13 hydrogen atoms to match the optimum σ0. Such composition may be found at the phase boundary between the observed LaH10 and LaH16 phases. Partial ionic replacement is suggested to shift the super-hydride composition into the σ0 optimum. Micro-structural phenomena such as multiple twinning and ferroelastic behavior as observed with cuprates may also influence the superconductivity of super-hydrides. Finally, epitaxial growth of super-hydrides onto a specially cut diamond substrate is proposed.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction: Why Not Use CuKβ Radiation?  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2018.83004
Abstract: Cu radiation with a wavelength of λ = 1.3923 ? is recommended for crystal structure determination from X-ray powder diffraction using the Rietfeld method. A highly sensitive image plate detector is able to collect enough intensity to record a brilliant X-ray powder pattern in a reasonable time, compared to CuKα1 radiation used today. Especially atomic displacement coefficients could be determined more precisely with the much greater number of reflections recorded. A double-radius Guinier camera attached to a micro-focus rotating anode tube ensures increased brilliance besides high resolution. A simple construction specification is presented to make smart cylindrically bent Ge(111) or Si(111) X-ray monochromators that deliver focused Cu radiation. The highly linear response of image plate detectors allows removing of fluorescence radiation simply as background of the pattern. The proposed equipment is a cost-efficient alternative to a liquid gallium-metal-jet X-ray source with maximum power load and a similar wavelength of λ(GaKα1) = 1.34013 ?.
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