Abstract:
The characteristic optical properties of gold, combined with its complete resistance to attack in any surroundings and its ability to be applied as very thin films, have led to a number of interesting and diverse applications in industry. The author, formerly Research Manager to the Metals Department of DEGUSSA, reviews these uses and the special properties upon which they are based.

Abstract:
The masses of a l l fundamental elementary particles (those with a lifetime > 10-24 sec) can be calculated with an inaccuracy of approx. 1% using the equation m/melectron = N/2α where α is the coupling constant of quantum electrodynamics (also known as fine structure constant) (= 1/137.036), and N is an integer variable. This is the by far most accurate and most comprehensive approach to calculate the particle masses.

Abstract:
Convex polyhedral cuprate clusters are being formed through lateral frustration when the a and c lattice parameters of the tetragonal ACuO_{2} infinite layer structure will become identical by substitution of a large cation (A = Ba^{2+}). However, the corner-shared CuO_{2} plaquettes of the infinite network suffer a topotactic rearrangement forming edge-connected units, for instance Cu_{18}O_{24} cages (polyhedron notation [4^{6}4^{12}3^{8}]) with <90° ferromagnetic super-exchange interaction as found in cubic BaCuO2. Cage formation via a hypothetical tetragonal BaCuO_{2} compound (space group P4/ nmm) will be discussed. The possibility to construct a cuprate super-cage with m3m symmetry (polyhedron notation [4^{6}4^{12}4^{24}3^{8}]) is being reported. This super-cage still consists of edge-connected CuO_{2} plaquettes when fully decorated with copper ions, but with different curvatures, arranged in circles of 9.39 ? of diameter with 139.2° Cu-O-Cu antiferromagnetic super-exchange interaction. On the one hand, the realization of such a quite stable cuprate super-cage as a candidate for high-T_{c} superconductivity depends on whether a template of suitable size such as the cation or C(CH_{3})_{4} enables its formation, and on the other hand the cage can further be stabilized by highly charged cations located along the [111] direction. Synthesis options will be proposed based on suggested cage formation pathways. An X-ray powder pattern was calculated for a less dense cluster structure of Im3m space group with a lattice parameter of a = 14.938 ? and two formula units of Cu_{46}O_{51} to facilitate future identification. Characteristic X-ray scattering features as identification tool were obtained when the electron distribution of the hollow polyhedron was approximated with electron density in a spherical shell.

Abstract:
Previously,
synthetic hexagonal bismuth sulfide iodide (polar space group P6_{3}, a
= 15.629(3) ?, c = 4.018(1) ?, Z = 2) has been described by the rather
unsatisfactory fractional formula Bi_{19/3}IS_{9} [1]-[3]. A redetermination of the structure using old but reliable photographic
intensity data indicated the presence of additional split positions and reduced
atomic occupancies. From the observed pattern of this “averaged” structure a
consistent model of a superstructure with lattice parameters of a' = √13·a =
56.35(1) ?, c' = c, and a formula Bi_{5-x}(Bi_{2}S_{3})_{39}I_{12}S
emerged, with 2 formula units in a cell of likewise P6_{3} space group.
Structural modulation may be provoked by the space the lone electron pair of Bi
requires. When Bi on the 0, 0, z position of the “averaged” cell is transferred
to two general six-fold sites and one unoccupied twofold one of the super-cell,
more structural stability is guaranteed due to compensation of its basal plane
dipole momentum. Owing to the limited intensity data available, more details of
the superstructure are not accessible yet. Some physical properties and solar
cell application are discussed together with suggestions of ambient temperature
synthesis routes of c-axis oriented nano-rod sheets.

Abstract:
The empirical relation of between the transition temperature of optimum doped superconductors T_{co} and the mean cationic charge , a physical paradox, can be recast to strongly support fractal theories of high-T_{c} superconductors, thereby applying the finding that the optimum hole concentration of σ_{o} = 0.229 can be linked with the universal fractal constant δ_{1} = 8.72109… of the renormalized quadratic Hénon map. The transition temperature obviously increases steeply with a domain structure of ever narrower size, characterized by Fibonacci numbers. However, also conventional BCS superconductors can be scaled with δ_{1}, exemplified through the energy gap relation k_{B}T_{c} ≈ 5Δ_{0}/δ_{1}, suggesting a revision of the entire theory of superconductivity. A low mean cationic charge allows the development of a frustrated nano-sized fractal structure of possibly ferroelastic nature delivering nano-channels for very fast charge transport, in common for both high-T_{c} superconductor and organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar materials. With this backing superconductivity above room temperature can be conceived for synthetic sandwich structures of less than 2+. For instance, composites of tenorite and cuprite respectively tenorite and CuI (CuBr, CuCl) onto AuCu alloys are proposed. This specification is suggested by previously described filamentary superconductivity of “bulk” CuO1﹣x samples. In addition, cesium substitution in the Tl-1223 compound is an option.

Abstract:
Low-dimensional quantum spin
systems with the Cu^{2+} central ion are still in the focus of
experimental and theoretical research. Here is reported on growth of mm-sized
single-crystals of the low-dimensional S = 1/2 spin compound Cu_{6}(Ge,Si)_{6}O_{18}·6H_{2}O by a diffusion technique in
aqueous solution. A route to form Si-rich crystals down to possible dioptase,
the pure silicate, is discussed. Motivated by previously reported incorrect
assignments of UV-VIS spectra, the
assignment of dd excitations from such
spectra of the hexahydrate and the fully dehydrated compound is proposed in
comparison to dioptase and selected Cu(II) oxo-compounds using bond strength
considerations. Non-doped cuprates as layer
compounds show higher excitation energies than the title compound. However,
when the antiferromagnetic interaction energy as J_{z}·ln(2) is
taken into account for cuprates, a single linear relationship between the Dq_{e }excitation energy and
equatorial Cu(II)-O bond strength is confirmed for all compounds. A linear
representation is also confirmed between ^{2}A_{1g} energies and a function of axial and equatorial Cu-O
bond distances if auxiliary axial bonds are used for four-coordinated
compounds. The quotient Dt/Dsof experimental orbital energies deviating from the general trend to
smaller values indicates the existence of H_{2}O respectively Cl^{−} axial ligands in comparison to oxo-ligands, whereas larger Dt/Dq_{e} values
indicate missing axial bonds. The quotient of the excitation energy

Abstract:
In fairly good agreement with the consensus range of dark energy to matter this ratio of the critical density is suggested to be connected with the golden mean φ=0.6180339887, yielding for dark energy to matter mass fractions .？Assuming the baryonic matter to be only 4.432%, the ratio of matter to baryonic matter would be , and further the ratio of dark matter to baryonic one . If one subtracts from the dark matter a contribution of antimatter with the same mass of baryonic matter, according to the antigravity theories of Villata respectively Hajdukovic, the remaining mass ratio would yield . Replacing the “Madelung” constant α of Villata’s “lattice universe” by φ, one reaches again 1 + φ as the ratio of the repulsive mass contribution to the attractive one. Assuming instead of a 3D lattice a flat 2D one of rocksalt type, the numerical similarity between the Madelung constant and φ^{−1} could not be just coincidence. The proposed scaling of the cosmological mass fractions with the square of the most irrational universal number φ may indicate that the chaotic cosmological processes have reached a quite stable equilibrium. This may be confirmed by another, but similar representation of the mass constituents by the Archimedes’ constant π, giving for respectively for the dark components . However, the intimate connection of φ with its reciprocal may ignite the discussion whether our universe is intertwined with another universe or even part of a multiverse with the dark constituents contributed from there.

Abstract:
The principle aim of this work is to simulate the
invasion of two invasive mosquito species Aedes
aegypti and Aedes albopictus in
central Europe at a landscape scale. The spatial-temporal dynamics of invasion
is investigated in dependence of predation pressure, seasonal variation of
ambient temperature as well as human population density. The introduction of
temperature dependent entomological parameters enables the simulation of
seasonal pattern of population dynamics. The influence of temperature, predation
pressure and human population density on invasion is studied in one-dimensional
cases. In two dimensions, georeferenced parameters such as annual mean
temperature and human population density are prepared by a geographical
information system and introduced into the finite element tool COMSOL
Multiphysics. The results show that under the current temperature, central
Europe cannot become a permanent breeding region for Aedes aegypti. However, southwest Germany especially the regions
along the Upper Rhine Valley may provide suitable habitats for the permanent
establishment of Aedes albopictus. An
annual temperature rise of two degrees would lead to dramatic increase of
invasion speed and extension range of Aedes
albopictus.

Abstract:
In this short contribution, a reciprocity relation between mass constituents of the universe was explained governed by Hardy’s maximum entanglement probability of φ^{5} = 0.09017. While well explainable through a set-theoretical argumentation, the relation may also be a consequence of a coupling factor attributed to the normed dimensions of the universe. Also, very simple expressions for the mass amounts were obtained, when replacing the Golden Mean φ by the Archimedes’ constant π. A brief statement was devoted to the similarity between the E-Infinity Theory of El Naschie and the Information Relativity Theory of Suleiman. In addition, superconductivity was also linked with Hardy’s entanglement probability.

Abstract:
Recently, many seminal papers deal with the syntheses, stability and superconducting properties of super-hydrides like LaH_{10} or YH_{10} under high pressure, reporting critical temperatures near room temperature. In the first run one will assume that the involved metal atoms contribute a number of 3 electrons to the pairing pool corresponding to their valence. However, another possibility may be that the cationic valence is somewhat smaller, for instance only 2.29, resulting in a nominal electron number per cation of σ_{0} = 0.229 ≈ 3/13 instead of 0.3. Then, we will have a numerical equality to the optimum hole number in the cuprate high-T_{c} superconductors, a number that reflects the fractal nature of electronic response in superconductors. However, if one still keeps up the oxidation state of +3 of lanthanum, one will need 13 hydrogen atoms to match the optimum σ_{0}. Such composition may be found at the phase boundary between the observed LaH_{10} and LaH_{16} phases. Partial ionic replacement is suggested to shift the super-hydride composition into the σ_{0} optimum. Micro-structural phenomena such as multiple twinning and ferroelastic behavior as observed with cuprates may also influence the superconductivity of super-hydrides. Finally, epitaxial growth of super-hydrides onto a specially cut diamond substrate is proposed.