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ENTEROPARASITOSIS, ENTEROBIASIS Y FACTORES DE RIESGO EN NI OS PREESCOLARES
Cervantes Jaissy,Otazo Gladielys,Rojas María,Vivas Francy
Salud, Arte y Cuidado , 2012,
Abstract: Intestinal parasites represent a serious public health problem, in both rural and urban areas, affecting mainly pediatric population. As described above, an analytical study of prevalence was conducted to determine the frequency of intestinal parasites, nutritional status and associated risk factors in preschool ¨Jacinto Lara¨. The sample was not random, conformed by 191 preschool children. It was used interview as data collection instrument,determining frequency of epidemiological factors, anthropometric parameters were obtained to determine nutritional status and it was performed an analysis of stool samples through direct techniques of saline physiological and Lugol′s solution, concentrates Kato, Quensel and Graham method. It was found 41,4% of preschool children infected by intestinal parasites, predominating age was 6 years 46,9%, prevailed males 48.9%.Main protozoa found were Blastocystis hominis 53, 1%, Giardia lamblia 29, 1% and helminthes Enterobius vermicularis 17, 7% and Ascaris lumbricoides 5%. Predominance of symptoms such as expulsion of parasites 55% and paleness 51, 5%. Nutritional status of preschool children infected by intestinal parasites was normal 42,4%, the epidemiological factor where prevailed parasites was inadequate disposal of excreta 57,1% and the absence of antiparasitic treatment in the last 6 months 47,3%. In conclusion the study found nosigni cant association between the risk factors studied and the frequency of intestinal parasites, nevertheless, the high frequency of preschool children infected by intestinal parasites compromise to analyze other epidemiological elements in future researches.
Técnica Anatómica para Restaurar y/o Reproducir Piezas óseas Humanas de Difícil Obtención, para la Investigación y Docencia Científica
Villarroel Guerra,Mauricio; Medina Otazo,Eugenio;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000200038
Abstract: a technique to reproduce and/or restore human bones for teaching, scientific, academic or artistic purposes is described. this technique allows us to obtain optimal preparations in texture, color, allowing three-dimensionality as well as subtle morphological details of bone pieces. the technique is applied for reproducing human bone pieces that are difficult to obtain, as are the bones of the head. however all types of bone pieces can be used. our results confirm that this technique has a high degree of reliability compared with the original piece. therefore the technique can be very useful in teaching and research.
Detección de la expresión génica in vivo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis durante la tuberculosis pulmonar activa Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo-expressed genes detection during active pulmonary tuberculosis
Alejandra Otazo M,Ingrid Gutiérrez S,Víctor Acevedo F,Carlos Calderón A
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias , 2012,
Abstract: El estudio de la expresión génica de Mycobacterium tuberculosis ha involucrado la experimentación "in vitro ", "ex vivo " e "in vivo " (modelos animales), pero aún sin el éxito esperado. Proponemos que revelar los factores clave de la tuberculosis humana requiere investigar la expresión génica de M. tuberculosis dentro del ser humano ("in vivo "). Para ello, aislamos el mRNA total de M. tuberculosis, desde muestras clínicas respiratorias de pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar; posteriormente, sintetizamos el dscDNA y lo analizamos mediante RT-PCR cualitativo. Detectamos la expresión de la secuencia de inserción IS6110 y de los genes "housekeeping " 16SrRNA y sigA en M. tuberculosis creciendo in vivo (tuberculosis pulmonar) así como cultivado in vitro. La expresión de los genes mprA y mprB, que codifican el sistema de transducción de se ales MprAB, sólo se detectó en M. tuberculosis crecido in vitro. Con nuestros resultados damos el primer paso hacia la implementación de un método no invasivo para el estudio del transcriptoma de M. tuberculosis, dentro de su único hospedero natural, con el fin de analizar la regulación "in vivo" de los determinantes genéticos requeridos para su virulencia y patogénesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene expression studies have involved "in vitro", "ex vivo" and "in vivo" experiments (animal models), but without the expected success. We propose that key features of human tuberculosis could be discovered by studying the M. tuberculosis gene expression within the human host. Therefore, we isolated totalM. tuberculosis mRNA from human clinical respiratory specimens of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis; after this, we synthesized the dscDNA and tested it by qualitative RT-PCR assays. We detected the expression of IS6110 insertion sequence and of the "housekeeping" genes 16SrRNA andsigA in M. tuberculosis grown in vivo (pulmonary tuberculosis) as well as grown in vitro M. tuberculosis. mprA and mprB genes expression, which code the MprAB signal transduction system, were only detected in M. tuberculosis grown in vitro. Our results provide the first step towards a non invasive methodfor the study of the transcriptome of M. tuberculosis within its native host, to analyze "in vivo" regulation of the genetic determinants required for virulence and pathogenesis.
Developing Ontology Systems as a Base of an Environmental Quality Management Model in México  [PDF]
René Bernardo Elías Cabrera-Cruz, Erika Alarcón-Ruiz, Julio César Rolón-Aguilar, Salvador W. Nava-Díaz, Elena María Otazo-Sánchez, Ricardo Pérez Aviléz
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.69095
Abstract: The process of identifying the attributes and relationships considered in an ontology is a complex task because there are many factors involved in the deterioration of environmental quality, the diversity of sources and data dispersion. This work presents an ontology that integrates the data required by an Environmental Quality Synoptic System (EQSS), which to date scatters in different Internet sites and concentrates by different agencies for example INEGI, CONABIO, SEMARNAT, CNA, among others. The methodology process consists of the collection of environmental information in Mexico through the application of computational techniques resulting ontology with environmental knowledge that will be processed by the system EQSS. Among the main advantages is than the selection and structure of information allow the automated generation of results in an environmental statement. The ontology proposal is based on knowledge of EQSS system that is based on the architecture of expert systems and through this important information for decision-making in regard to environmental quality and interaction with Geographic Information System (GIS) is obtained.
Evaluación regional del impacto antrópico sobre aire, agua y suelo. Caso: huasteca hidalguense, México
GORDILLO MARTíNEZ, Alberto José;CABRERA CRUZ, René Bernardo Elías;HERNáNDEZ MARIANO, Marisol;GALINDO, Erick;OTAZO, Elena;PRIETO, Francisco;
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2010,
Abstract: the state of hidalgo, mexico presents an important environmental problem that manifests itself in different ways. to identify the sources, types and the magnitude of pollutants, an inventory of sources of industrial and domestic pollution for air, water and soil in ten municipalities of the huasteca region of the state was carried out using the technique of rapid assessment of sources of environmental pollution and the results are reported in this paper. a total of combined pollutants emitted was 116 978.95 tons/year. gasoline vehicles contributed 11 039 tons/year of air pollutants and diesel vehicles 1521 tons/year. for water, industrial sources contributed 22 496 tons/year and domestic effluents 15 776 tons/year. soil pollution was a result of industrial solid waste, 4025 tons/year, and municipal solid waste, 62 121 tons/year. by municipality, huejutla de reyes is the most polluted in air, water and soil, with 53 % of the regional total. these results were evaluated in relation to environmental quality of each medium based on the mexican regulations; these levels are above permissible limits for water and soil. a database with relevant information was prepared as a support for efficient management of pollutant emissions, provide base mark data for complementary studies, and to promote the future conservation of environmental quality and the biological richness of the area.
Síntesis de arsenoalginato de calcio para eliminación de iones arseniatos en aguas contaminadas
FRANCISCO PRIETO GARCíA,ELENA M. OTAZO SáNCHEZ,ALBERTO J. GORDILLO MARTíNEZ,MARíA A. MéNDEZ MARZO
DYNA , 2007,
Abstract: Utilizando alginato de sodio comercial, se optimizó la síntesis del arsenoalginato de calcio utilizando el CaCl2 y arsénico en forma de NaH2AsO4. Se probó concentraciones de As entre 20-1000 μg·L-1 para finalmente probar en aguas reales contaminadas con contenidos de 480 μg·L-1 y evaluar la eficiencia de coprecipitación y eliminación de As. Los resultados optimizados indicaron trabajar con niveles de concentración de alginato de 1.0 g.L-1, pH 6 y concentración de CaCl2 entre 400-500 mg.L-1 a temperatura ambiente, mayores temperaturas, favorecen más la redisolución de los precipitados que la sedimentación. Se obtuvo sólidos cristalinos que pudieran ser evaluados en otros estudios con algún uso potencial. La eficiencia de eliminación de As en aguas contaminadas fue de 96 % lo cual es indicativo de que los contenidos de As de esta agua, pueden ser minimizados desde sus valores iniciales a niveles cercanos a lo establecido por la normatividad mexicana actual
Modelacion de la calidad del agua del río tula, Estado de hidalgo, México
ROSALBA MONTELONGO CASANOVA,ALBERTO JOSé GORDILLO MARTíNEZ,ELENA MARíA OTAZO SáNCHEZ,JOSé ROBERTO VILLAGóMEZ IBARRA
DYNA , 2008,
Abstract: Modelar la calidad del agua del río Tula, desde el emisor central hasta su confluencia con la presa Endhó, ha sido el objetivo central de este trabajo. Se evaluó durante dos a os, considerando una longitud de 50 km en 4 zonas y 35 sitios de muestreo. La mayor cantidad de materia orgánica la aporta el emisor central, agua sin tratamiento de la Ciudad de México y zona conurbana. Los valores de DBO variaron desde 1.16 hasta 486.81 mg O2/L; el oxígeno disuelto entre 1.52 y 5.82 mg/L, esto implica afectación para el desarrollo de la vida acuática. La alcalinidad rebasó el criterio ecológico de calidad como fuente de agua potable con valor de 458.01 mg/L. Las grasas presentaron variaciones desde 0.9 mg/L hasta 18.1 mg/L y el nitrógeno amoniacal fuera de los límites establecidos para protección de la vida acuática con valores desde 0.09 a 64 mg/L; los nitratos (6.24 mg/L) y nitritos (0.5-1.304 mg/L) rebasan el criterio ecológico. Los metales cadmio, plomo, hierro, manganeso y zinc están en concentraciones por encima de lo permisible en y en algunos tramos se reportó presencia de mercurio. Los coniformes fecales fueron detectados en valores desde 2.1 x104 hasta 2.40 x1011 NMP/100 ml. En general la toxicidad en las descargas de aguas residuales demostró que todas se presentan de moderada a alta. Solamente tres estaciones de monitoreo (19 %) con excelente calidad, DBO5 menores o iguales a 3 mg/L, lo que se considera como agua no contaminada por materia orgánica biodegradable.
SíNTESIS DE ARSENOALGINATO DE CALCIO PARA ELIMINACIóN DE IONES ARSENIATOS EN AGUAS CONTAMINADAS
PRIETO GARCíA,FRANCISCO; OTAZO SáNCHEZ,ELENA M.; GORDILLO MARTíNEZ,ALBERTO J.; MéNDEZ MARZO,MARíA A.; SáNCHEZ DE JESúS,FéLIX;
DYNA , 2007,
Abstract: synthesis of calcium arsenoalginate was optimized using common sodium alginate, cacl2 and nah2aso4 which brought the arsenic. in order to evaluate the co-precipitation efficiency and elimination of arsenic, several concentrations of as, ranging from 20 to 1000 mg.l-1 was tested including real contaminated water containing 480 mg.l-1of arsenic. optimized results, by means of factorial design matrix, pointed out the best synthesis conditions; sodium alginate concentration of 1.0 g.l-1, ph 6, cacl2 concentration between 400-500 mgl-1 and room temperature. re-dissolution of the precipitates is promoted than sedimentation when temperature is greater than room temperature. the precipitates are crystalline solids that in future studies will be characterized more extensively in order to elucidate potential applications. in contaminated water the arsenic was eliminated with an efficiency of 96% these result allows to consider that is possible to reduce arsenic concentration until levels according to mexican standard.
MODELACION DE LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA DEL RíO TULA, ESTADO DE HIDALGO, MéXICO
MONTELONGO CASANOVA,ROSALBA; GORDILLO MARTíNEZ,ALBERTO JOSé; OTAZO SáNCHEZ,ELENA MARíA; VILLAGóMEZ IBARRA,JOSé ROBERTO; ACEVEDO SANDOVAL,OTILIO ARTURO; PRIETO GARCíA,FRANCISCO;
DYNA , 2008,
Abstract: the central objective of this work is to model the quality of the water of tula river, from the central emitter to their confluence with the endhó dam. it was evaluated during two years, considering a length of 50 km in 4 zones and 35 sites of sampling. the central emitter contributes to the greater amount of organic matter, water without treatment of the city of mexico and co urbane zone. the values of dbo varied from 1.16 up to 486.81 mg o2/l; the oxygen dissolved between 1.52 and 5.82 mg/l, this implies affectation for the development of the aquatic life. the alkalinity exceeded the ecological criteria of quality as a source of potable water with value of 458.01 mg/l. the fats displayed variations from 0.9 mg/l up to 18.1 mg/l and ammonia cal nitrogen outside the limits established for protection of the aquatic life with values from 0.09 a 64 mg/l; nitrates (6.24 mg/l) and nitrites (0.5-1.304 mg/l) exceed the ecological criteria. the metals cadmium, lead, iron, manganese and zinc are in concentrations over the permissible rank and in some sections mercury presence was reported. the fecal coliforms were detected in values from 2.1 x104 up to 2.40 x1011 nmp/100 milliliters. in general, the toxicity in the residual water unloading demonstrated that all appears of moderate to high. only there were three monitored stations (19%) with excellent quality, 3 smaller or equal dbo5 to mg/l, which is considered like water no contaminated by biodegradable organic matter.
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