Abstract:
Black carbon (BC) absorbs shortwave radiation more strongly than any other type of aerosol, and an accurate simulation of the aging processes of BC-containing particle is required to properly predict aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and climate change. However, BC aging processes have been simplified in general circulation models (GCMs) due to limited computational resources. In particular, differences in the representation of the mixing states of BC-containing particles between GCMs constitute one of main reasons for the uncertainty in ARF estimates. To understand an impact of the BC aging processes and the mixing state of BC on the spatial distribution of BC and ARF caused by BC (BC-ARF), we implemented three different methods of incorporating BC aging processes into a global aerosol transport model, SPRINTARS: (1) the "AGV" method, using variable conversion rates of BC aging based on a new type of parameterization depending on both BC amount and sulfuric acid; (2) the "AGF" method, using a constant conversion rate used worldwide in GCMs; and (3) the "ORIG" method, which is used in the original SPRINTARS. First, we found that these different methods produced different BC burden within 10% over industrial areas and 50% over remote oceans. Second, a ratio of water-insoluble BC to total BC (WIBC ratio) was very different among the three methods. Near the BC source region, for example, the WIBC ratios were estimated to be 80–90% (AGV and AGF) and 50–60% (ORIG). Third, although the BC aging process in GCMs had small impacts on the BC burden, they had a large impact on BC-ARF through a change in both the WIBC ratio and non-BC compounds coating on BC cores. As a result, possible differences in the treatment of the BC aging process between aerosol modeling studies can produce a difference of approximately 0.3 Wm 2 in the magnitude of BC-ARF, which is comparable to the uncertainty suggested by results from a global aerosol modeling intercomparison project, AeroCom. The surface aerosol forcing efficiencies normalized by aerosol optical thickness and by BC burden varied greatly with region in the AGV method, which allowed for the existence of internally mixed BC and sulfate, whereas these were not varied with region in the AGF method. These results suggest that the efficiencies of BC-ARF obtained by previous studies using the AGF method are significantly underestimated.

Abstract:
We conducted a regional-scale simulation (with grid spacing = 60 km) over Northeast Asia for the entire year of 2006 by using an aerosol chemical transport model, the lateral and upper boundary concentrations of which we predicted with a global stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry-climate model, with a horizontal resolution of T42 (grid spacing ~300 km) and a time resolution of 1 h. The present one-way nested global-through-regional-scale model is called the Meteorological Research Institute – Passive-tracers Model system for atmospheric Chemistry (MRI-PM/c). We evaluated the model performance with respect to the major inorganic components in rain and snow measured by stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Through statistical analysis, we show that the model successfully reproduced the regional-scale processes of emission, transport, transformation, and wet deposition of major inorganic species derived from anthropogenic and natural sources, including SO42 , NH4+, NO3 , Na+ and Ca2+. Interestingly, the only exception was Na+ in precipitation at near-coastal stations (where the distance from the coast was from 150 to 700 m), concentrations of which were significantly underestimated by the model, by up to a factor of 30. This result suggested that the contribution of short-lived, super-large sea salt droplets (SLSD; D > 10–100 μm) was substantial in precipitation samples at stations near the coast of Japan; thus samples were horizontally representative only within the traveling distances of SLSD (from 1 to 10 km). Nevertheless, the calculated effect of SLSD on precipitation pH was very low, a change of about +0.014 on average, even if the ratio of SLSD to all sea salt in precipitation was assumed to be 90%.

Abstract:
The unitary gauge in the Higgs mechanism is to impose the condition of $\phi =\phi^\dagger $ on the Higgs fields. However, this is not the gauge fixing but simply a procedure for producing the massive vector boson fields by hand. The Lagrangian density of the weak interactions should be reconsidered by starting from the massive vector boson fields which couple to the fermion currents as the initial ingredients.

Abstract:
The mystery that the real scalar Klein-Gordon field has vanishing current densities is resolved. The scalar field is shown to be a complex field due to the condition of possessing a proper non-relativistic limit. Like the Schr\"odinger field, one component complex Klein-Gordon field corresponds to a boson with one flavor, and therefore there exists no physical real scalar field. As a good example, we present the Schwinger model Hamiltonian which is naturally described by the complex scalar field with one flavor. The non-existence of the real scalar field indicates that the Higgs mechanism should be reconsidered.

Abstract:
The Hall coefficient in the low-temperature tetragonal phase and the mid-temperature orthorhombic phase of La$_{1.88-y}$Y$_y$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$ ($y=0, 0.04$) single crystals is measured under high magnetic fields up to 9 T in order to investigate the detailed behavior of the transport properties at low temperatures in the stripe phase. When the superconductivity is suppressed by high magnetic fields, the Hall coefficient has negative values in low temperatures, and the temperature region of the negative values spreads as increasing magnetic fields. This result indicates that the Hall coefficient in the stripe phase around $x=0.12$ is a finite negative value, not zero.

Abstract:
We present the results from Suzaku observations of the hottest Abell galaxy cluster A2163 at $z=0.2$. To study the physics of gas heating in cluster mergers, we investigated hard X-ray emission from the merging cluster A2163, which hosts the brightest synchrotron radio halo. We analyzed hard X-ray spectra accumulated from two-pointed Suzaku observations. Non-thermal hard X-ray emission should result from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic electrons by the CMB photons. To measure this emission, the dominant thermal emission in the hard X-ray band must be modeled in detail. To this end, we analyzed the combined broad-band X-ray data of A2163 collected by Suzaku and XMM-Newton, assuming single- and multi-temperature models for thermal emission and the power-law model for non-thermal emission. From the Suzaku data, we detected significant hard X-ray emission from A2163 in the 12-60 keV band at the $28\sigma$ level (or at the $5.5\sigma$ level if a systematic error is considered). The Suzaku HXD spectrum alone is consistent with the single-T thermal model of gas temperature $kT=14$ keV. From the XMM data, we constructed a multi-T model including a very hot ($kT=18$ keV) component in the NE region. Incorporating the multi-T and the power-law models into a two-component model with a radio-band photon index, the 12-60 keV energy flux of non-thermal emission is constrained within $5.3 \pm 0.9 (\pm 3.8)\times 10^{-12}~{\rm erg\, s^{-1} cm^{-2}}$. The 90% upper limit of detected IC emission is marginal ($< 1.2\times 10^{-11}~{\rm erg\, s^{-1} cm^{-2}}$ in the 12-60 keV). The estimated magnetic field in A2163 is $B > 0.098~{\rm \mu G}$. While the present results represent a three-fold increase in the accuracy of the broad band spectral model of A2163, more sensitive hard X-ray observations are needed to decisively test for the presence of hard X-ray emission due to IC emission.

Abstract:
We conducted a regional-scale simulation over Northeast Asia for the year 2006 using an aerosol chemical transport model, with time-varying lateral and upper boundary concentrations of gaseous species predicted by a global stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry-climate model. The present one-way nested global-through-regional-scale model is named the Meteorological Research Institute–Passive-tracers Model system for atmospheric Chemistry (MRI-PM/c). We evaluated the model's performance with respect to the major anthropogenic and natural inorganic components, SO42 , NH4+, NO3 , Na+ and Ca2+ in the air, rain and snow measured at the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) stations. Statistical analysis showed that approximately 40–50 % and 70–80 % of simulated concentration and wet deposition of SO42 , NH4+, NO3 and Ca2+ are within factors of 2 and 5 of the observations, respectively. The prediction of the sea-salt originated component Na+ was not successful at near-coastal stations (where the distance from the coast ranged from 150 to 700 m), because the model grid resolution (Δx=60 km) is too coarse to resolve it. The simulated Na+ in precipitation was significantly underestimated by up to a factor of 30.

Abstract:
We study integrals of completely integrable quantum systems associated with classical root systems. We review integrals of the systems invariant under the corresponding Weyl group and as their limits we construct enough integrals of the non-invariant systems, which include systems whose complete integrability will be first established in this paper. We also present a conjecture claiming that the quantum systems with enough integrals given in this note coincide with the systems that have the integrals with constant principal symbols corresponding to the homogeneous generators of the $B_n$-invariants. We review conditions supporting the conjecture and give a new condition assuring it.

Abstract:
We examine supersymmetric quantum mechanics on $SO(4)$ to realize Witten's idea. We find instanton solutions connecting approximate vacuums. We calculate Hessian matrices for these solutions to determine true vacuums. Our result is in agreement with de Rham cohomology of $SO(4)$. We also give a criterion for cancellation of instanton effects for a pair of instanton paths.

Abstract:
We study the $O(N)$ non-linear $\sigma$ model on three-dimensional manifolds of constant curvature by means of the large $N$ expansion at the critical point. We examine saddle point equations imposing anti-periodic boundary condition in time direction. In the case $S^1 \times S^2$ we find that a solution is inevitably unstable. We briefly refer to the case $S^1 \times S^1 \times S^1$.