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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5934 matches for " Oscar Bottasso "
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Clinical and Experimental Immunomodulation
Lenin Pavón,Hugo Besedosky,Oscar Bottasso,Rogelio Hernández,Marco Velasco,Roger Loria
Journal of Immunology Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/801251
Rese a de "Protestantismo indígena" de Susana Andrade
Bottasso , Juan
Iconos : Revista de Ciencias Sociales , 2004,
A misunderstood Pope
Juan Bottasso
Alteridad : Revista de Educación , 2013,
Abstract: After Pope Benedict′s resignation, the media obsessively highlighted divisions of the Church and the scandals, forgetting that Joseph Ratzinger had sought to preserve the Church′s “common denominator of tradition and dogma”. Through a brief analysis on the difficult path Ratzinger had to lead, as part of the Ecumenical Council, in his differences with the theology of liberation, and his reluctance later as Pope to blindly leap into modernity, this article points out Ratzinger′s efforts to keep the Church unified. Ratzinger belonged to the progressive wing of the Council, however, his work was misunderstood for having to maintain order in a world marked by 1968′s social revolution, the Cold War, Marxism, the politicization of religion, and thus having to defend the Church from “self-destruction”. This article discusses the reality of Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, a life dedicated to the Catholic Church in the face of today′s world challenges.
TNF-α Is Involved in the Abnormal Thymocyte Migration during Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Favors the Export of Immature Cells
Ana Rosa Pérez, Luiz Ricardo Berbert, Ailin Lepletier, Silvia Revelli, Oscar Bottasso, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa, Wilson Savino
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034360
Abstract: Previous studies revealed a significant production of inflammatory cytokines together with severe thymic atrophy and thymocyte migratory disturbances during experimental Chagas disease. Migratory activity of thymocytes and mature T cells seem to be finely tuned by cytokines, chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Systemic TNF-α is enhanced during infection and appears to be crucial in the response against the parasite. However, it also seems to be involved in disease pathology, since it is implicated in the arrival of T cells to effector sites, including the myocardium. Herein, we analyzed the role of TNF-α in the migratory activity of thymocytes in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) acutely-infected mice. We found increased expression and deposition of TNF-α in the thymus of infected animals compared to controls, accompanied by increased co-localization of fibronectin, a cell migration-related ECM molecule, whose contents in the thymus of infected mice is also augmented. In-vivo studies showed an enhanced export of thymocytes in T. cruzi-infected mice, as ascertained by intrathymic injection of FITC alone or in combination with TNF-α. The increase of immature CD4+CD8+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs was even more clear-cut when TNF-α was co-injected with FITC. Ex-vivo transmigration assays also revealed higher number of migrating cells when TNF-α was added onto fibronectin lattices, with higher input of all thymocyte subsets, including immature CD4+CD8+. Infected animals also exhibit enhanced levels of expression of both mRNA TNF-α receptors in the CD4+CD8+ subpopulation. Our findings suggest that in T. cruzi acute infection, when TNF-α is complexed with fibronectin, it favours the altered migration of thymocytes, promoting the release of mature and immature T cells to different compartments of the immune system. Conceptually, this work reinforces the notion that thymocyte migration is a multivectorial biological event in health and disease, and that TNF-α is a further player in the process.
Religion and violence
P. Juan Bottasso
Alteridad : Revista de Educación , 2011,
Abstract: Las religiones son necesariamente violentas?Resulta evidente que en la actualidad, muchos de los conflictos, que ensangrientan el planeta, tienen un trasfondo religioso. El que aparece casi a diario en los noticieros es el que contrapone israelíes y palestinos (judíos contra musulmanes), pero con enorme frecuencia se habla también de actos terroristas llevados a cabo por fanáticos religiosos que no dudan en masacrar a civiles inocentes, en nombre de la divinidad. Debe ser bajo el efecto de estas informaciones que, cuando a fines de 2010 el Times de Londres preguntó a los lectores si consideraban la religión útil para la sociedad, éstos contestaron mayoritariamente de manera negativa. En la mira de los críticos se encuentran especialmente las religiones monoteístas, porque, al considerarse exclusivas poseedoras de la única verdad, están particularmente expuestas a la intransigencia, basadas en la premisa que el error no puede tener derechos.
A Multifaceted Analysis of Immune-Endocrine-Metabolic Alterations in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Natalia Santucci, Luciano D'Attilio, Leandro Kovalevski, Verónica Bozza, Hugo Besedovsky, Adriana del Rey, María Luisa Bay, Oscar Bottasso
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026363
Abstract: Our study investigated the circulating levels of factors involved in immune-inflammatory-endocrine-metabolic responses in patients with tuberculosis with the aim of uncovering a relation between certain immune and hormonal patterns, their clinical status and in vitro immune response. The concentration of leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, IL-1β, ghrelin, C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and the in vitro immune response (lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production) was evaluated in 53 patients with active untreated tuberculosis, 27 household contacts and 25 healthy controls, without significant age- or sex-related differences. Patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), reduced levels of leptin and DHEA, and increased concentrations of CRP, IL-6, cortisol, IL-1β and nearly significant adiponectin values than household contacts and controls. Within tuberculosis patients the BMI and leptin levels were positively correlated and decreased with increasing disease severity, whereas higher concentrations of IL-6, CRP, IL-1β, cortisol, and ghrelin were seen in cases with moderate to severe tuberculosis. Household contacts had lower DHEA and higher IL-6 levels than controls. Group classification by means of discriminant analysis and the k-nearest neighbor method showed that tuberculosis patients were clearly different from the other groups, having higher levels of CRP and lower DHEA concentration and BMI. Furthermore, plasma leptin levels were positively associated with the basal in vitro IFN-γ production and the ConA-driven proliferation of cells from tuberculosis patients. Present alterations in the communication between the neuro-endocrine and immune systems in tuberculosis may contribute to disease worsening.
Dynamics of Adrenal Steroids Are Related to Variations in Th1 and Treg Populations during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV Positive Persons
Maria Florencia Quiroga, Matias Tomas Angerami, Natalia Santucci, Diego Ameri, Jose Luis Francos, Jorge Wallach, Omar Sued, Pedro Cahn, Horacio Salomón, Oscar Bottasso
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033061
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent cause of illness and death from an infectious agent, and its interaction with HIV has devastating effects. We determined plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its circulating form DHEA-suphate (DHEA-s) and cortisol in different stages of M. tuberculosis infection, and explored their role on the Th1 and Treg populations during different scenarios of HIV-TB coinfection, including the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a condition related to antiretroviral treatment. DHEA levels were diminished in HIV-TB and HIV-TB IRIS patients compared to healthy donors (HD), HIV+ individuals and HIV+ individuals with latent TB (HIV-LTB), whereas dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) levels were markedly diminished in HIV-TB IRIS individuals. HIV-TB and IRIS patients presented a cortisol/DHEA ratio significantly higher than HIV+, HIV-LTB and HD individuals. A positive correlation was observed between DHEA-s and CD4 count among HIV-TB individuals. Conversely, cortisol plasma level inversely correlated with CD4 count within HIV-TB individuals. M. tuberculosis-specific Th1 lymphocyte count was increased after culturing PBMC from HIV-TB individuals in presence of DHEA. We observed an inverse correlation between DHEA-s plasma level and Treg frequency in co-infected individuals, and CD4+FoxP3+ Treg frequency was increased in HIV-TB and IRIS patients compared to other groups. Strikingly, we observed a prominent CD4+CD25-FoxP3+ population across HIV-TB and HIV-TB IRIS patients, which frequency correlated with DHEA plasma level. Finally, DHEA treatment negatively regulated FoxP3 expression without altering Treg frequency in co-infected patients. These data suggest an enhancing role for DHEA in the immune response against M. tuberculosis during HIV-TB coinfection and IRIS.
Low occurrence of arthritic manifestations in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: T cell subsets and humoral studies
Dlugovitzky, Diana;Torres, Ariel;Hourquescos, María C.;Svetaz, María J.;Quagliato, Norberto;Valentini, Eduardo;Amigot, Beatriz;Molteni, Osvaldo;Bottasso, Oscar;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761995000500016
Abstract: given the suspected role of mycobacteria in the establishment of disorders with an autoimmune background and joint damage, a study was conducted to analize whether rheumatic symptoms were likely to be present in tuberculosis (tb) patients. to this end, 330 patients with a bacteriologic confirmation of tuberculosis were investigated for the presence of arthritic complaints. the latter were recorded in five of them with rheumatic symptoms mostly involving interphalangeal and metacarpophalanged joints, and preceding the clinical manifestations of the tb illness. three out of these five patients remained arthritic by the time of the bacteriologic conversion and fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. in the two remaining patients sputum negativization was accompanied by a disappearance of rheumatic manifestations. these patients were also assessed for their peripheral levels of major t cell subsets as well as for the presence of autoantibodies. comparisons with a series of non-arthritic tb cases, rheumatoid arthritis patients, and controls revealed that presence of rheumatic manifestations was associated with a different profile of autoantibody formation and t cell subset changes. evidence recorded in the present study indicates that joint affectation in tb is a rare event, being rather the exception than the rule.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Regulates Glucocorticoid Synthesis in the Adrenal Glands of Trypanosoma cruzi Acutely-Infected Mice. The Role of TNF-R1
Silvina R. Villar, M. Teresa Ronco, Rodrigo Fernández Bussy, Eduardo Roggero, Ailin Lepletier, Romina Manarin, Wilson Savino, Ana Rosa Pérez, Oscar Bottasso
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063814
Abstract: Adrenal steroidogenesis is under a complex regulation involving extrinsic and intrinsic adrenal factors. TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine produced in response to tissue injury and several other stimuli. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-R1 knockout (TNF-R1?/?) mice have a dysregulated synthesis of glucocorticoids (GCs) during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Since TNF-α may influence GCs production, not only through the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, but also at the adrenal level, we now investigated the role of this cytokine on the adrenal GCs production. Wild type (WT) and TNF-R1?/? mice undergoing acute infection (Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1?/? groups), displayed adrenal hyperplasia together with increased GCs levels. Notably, systemic ACTH remained unchanged in Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1?/? compared with uninfected mice, suggesting some degree of ACTH-independence of GCs synthesis. TNF-α expression was increased within the adrenal gland from both infected mouse groups, with Tc-WT mice showing an augmented TNF-R1 expression. Tc-WT mice showed increased levels of P-p38 and P-ERK compared to uninfected WT animals, whereas Tc-TNF-R1?/? mice had increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation respect to Tc-WT mice. Strikingly, adrenal NF-κB and AP-1 activation during infection was blunted in Tc-TNF-R1?/? mice. The accumulation of mRNAs for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 were significantly increased in both Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1?/? mice; being much more augmented in the latter group, which also had remarkably increased GCs levels. TNF-α emerges as a potent modulator of steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells during T. cruzi infection in which MAPK pathways, NF-κB and AP-1 seem to play a role in the adrenal synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes regulating GCs synthesis. These results suggest the existence of an intrinsic immune-adrenal interaction involved in the dysregulated synthesis of GCs during murine Chagas disease.
The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Immunopathology of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Estela Isabel Bini, Dulce Mata Espinosa, Brenda Marquina Castillo, Jorge Barrios Payán, Darío Colucci, Alejandro Francisco Cruz, Zyanya Lucía Zatarain, Edgar Alfonseca, Marta Romano Pardo, Oscar Bottasso, Rogelio Hernández Pando
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093831
Abstract: The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator’s inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-α, IFN γ, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNFα, IL-12 and IFNγ. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor.
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