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Since carbon dioxide laser is
excellent for incision, hemostasis, coagulation, and vaporization of soft
tissues, it has been widely applied in clinical treatments as the laser knife.
In these days, flexible thin hollow optical fibers transmitting mid-infrared
light have been developed, and the application of carbon dioxide laser to
endoscopic therapy has become possible. However, it is expected that the
irradiation effect is influenced by the change in the laser power at the tip of
the hollow optical fiber due to the change in the transmittance by the bending
loss. The purpose of this research is to quantitatively evaluate the change in
the output power and therapeutic effect by bending the hollow optical fiber in
a gastrointestinal endoscope. The change in the transmittance of the hollow
optical fiber due to the insertion of the fiber into the endoscope and bending
of the head of the endoscope was measured. Then, the relationship between the
irradiated laser power and the incision depth for a porcine stomach was
investigated. As the results, the most significant decrease in the
transmittance of the hollow optical fiber was caused by the insertion of the
fiber into the instrument channel of the endoscope, and
bending of the head of the endoscope with the angle of 90° decreased the output
laser power and incision depth by 10% and 25%, respectively. Therefore, it was
confirmed that the bending loss of the hollow optical fiber due to the bending
of the head of the endoscope had no significant influence on the endoscopic
therapy using the carbon dioxide laser.
To investigate factors involved in the secretion of
protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a superficial eggshell pigment, from shell gland epithelial cells
of Japanese quail, we cultured cells in Ham’s F12 medium with calcium chloride and quail
plasma. The addition of hormones (prostaglandin F2α,
progesterone, estradiol-17β) to the
medium did not change the PpIX concentration
in the culture supernatant, but changing the calcium chloride (CaCl2) concentration did: a lower
concentration of CaCl2 led to a higher PpIX concentration; 0 mM CaCl2 enhanced
the secretion of PpIX from epithelial cells prepared at 5 or 7 mM CaCl2.
suggests that a drop in concentration of CaCl2 mimics the end of
shell calcification and stimulates
rapid secretion of PpIX in vivo.
Bovine serum albumin was almost as effective
In order to optimize the conditions for residual stress measurement using a two-dimensional X-ray
diffraction (2D-XRD) in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. The
measurements have been conducted on three stainless steel specimens in this
study. The three specimens were processed by annealing, a cavitating jet in air
and a disc grinder, with each method introducing different residual stresses at
the surface. The specimens were oscillated in the ω-direction, representing a right-hand rotation of the specimen
about the incident X-ray beam. The range of the oscillation, Δω, was varied
and optimum Δω was determined.
Moreover, combinations of the tilt angle between the specimen surface normal
and the diffraction vector, ψ, with
the rotation angle about its surface normal, f, have been studied with a view to find the most optimum condition.
The results show that the use of ω oscillations is an effective method for improving analysis accuracy,
especially for large grain metals. The standard error rapidly decreased with
increasing range of the ω oscillation, especially for the annealed specimen which generated strong
diffraction spots due to its large grain size.
In this study, we focused on the lift generation with a thin
rotating plate. The objective of this study is to understand the appropriate
shape and the role of vortex for rotating thin plate. We determined the shape
of the plate through free-flight tests of paper strips and investigated the
aerodynamic characteristics of the rotating plate with the selected shape. The
rectangular plate with an aspect ratio 7 was relevant from moment of inertia
and bending stress. An endplate on a wing tip increased the stability on the
lateral vortex structure behind the rotating plate. Velocity field measurement
by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) showed that the lift force was generated
twice in a rotating cycle.
Micro-blogging today has become a very popular communication tool among the Internet users. Real-time web services such as Twitter allow users to express their opinions and interests, often expressed in the form of short text messages. Many business companies are looking into utilizing these data streams in order to improve their marketing campaigns, refine advertising and better meet their customer needs. In this study, we focus on using Twitter, for the task of extraction product reputation trend. Thus, business could gauge the effectiveness of a recent marketing campaign by aggregating user opinions on Twitter regarding their product. In this paper, we introduce an approach for automatically classifying the sentiment of Twitter messages toward product/brand, using emoticons and by improving pre-processing steps in order to achieve high accuracy.