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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 52941 matches for " Opaluwa David "
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Urological complications of renal transplantation: Reducing the risk
Akoh Jacob,Opaluwa Abdu,Weller David
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2009,
Abstract: Urological complications can have a significant effect on the outcome of renal trans-plantation including the loss of the graft. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of urological complications occurring after kidney transplantation at our unit, and how the risk of com-plications can be reduced. All 398 renal transplantations performed at Derriford Hospital, Plymouth between August 1997 and December 2006 were reviewed. Twenty nine (7.3%) urological com-plications were noted with a median time to diagnosis of 8.5 days (range 1-950 days) following transplantation; 81% occurring within two weeks. Fourteen (48.3%) of these patients had iden-tifiable risk factors; 10 patients required ureteric reimplantation, 6 had Boari flap reconstruction, and 3 underwent transurethral resection prostatectomy. One graft was lost to severe ureteric nec-rosis. Steps to reduce the risk of complications include avoiding damage to organs during retrieval, meticulous bench preparation including hydrodilating ureters to exclude ureteric injury and vigi-lance during the transplant procedure. Prompt and appropriate corrective surgery can diminish the effect of urological complications on graft survival.
The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector
Opaluwa David,Ameh. A. Abu,Alabi J. O.,Abdul Mohammed
International Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ibm.1923842820120402.1075
Abstract: This study examined the effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on the Nigerian manufacturing sector spanning 1975 – 2008. Nigeria has embarked on several policy measures aimed at enhancing the manufacturing sector’s productivity coupled with the inflow of FDI to the country. The controversy is that the policy makers are not convinced that the potential benefits of FDI could be fully realized. The methodology adopted for the study is the Vector Auto Regression (VAR), co-integration and error correction techniques to establish the relationship between FDI and the growth of manufacturing sector. The findings from the study show that FDI has a negative effect on the manufacturing productivity and is statistically significant. Arising from the findings, it is recommended that government should create an enabling environment for foreign investment and the monitoring of FDI benefits, with particular focus of NEPAD and NEEDS through the instrumentality of the MDGs; thereby mustering the capacity for sustainable growth in the manufacturing sector. Key words: FDI; Manufacturing sector; Productivity; Growth, Policy
Age Strengthening of Grey Cast Iron Alloys for Machine Cutting Tools Production  [PDF]
A. I. Opaluwa, A. Oyetunji, S. O. Seidu
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.33013
Abstract: This work was carried out with the aim of using alloying and ageing processes to develop new alloys from grey cast iron that will have optimum properties suitable for the manufacturing of machine cutting tools. Four different alloys of grey cast iron with alloying composition of Fe-3% Al-2.5% Cr-2% Mo; Fe-3% Al-2% Cr-2% Mo; Fe-3% Al-2.5% Cr-1.5% Mo and Fe-3% Al-1.5% Cr-2% Mo were produced. The chemical analysis of both as-received base metal and produced alloys was determined using Spetro-CJRO Arc-Spectrometer. The microstructural properties and mechanical properties (hardness, impact toughness and ultimate tensile strength) of the produced alloys were determined for both as-cast samples and aged samples. The results showed that the addition of these alloying elements slightly decreased carbon, silicon and phosphorus content and thereby changed the hypereutectic cast iron to hypoeutectic by reducing the carbon equivalent. Also the morphology of graphite flake was changed as a result of the formation of nitrides and carbides of different phases. The results of the mechanical properties showed that the maximum hardness values obtained for each of the four alloys produced and aged at 300?C are 71.5 HRc, 69 HRc, 66.5 HRc and 65.4 HRc respectively. The maximum values for impact toughness obtained for each of the same produced alloys are 66 J, 63.6 J, 62 J and 60.3 J respectively. Also the maximum ultimate tensile strength values obtained for each of the alloys are 1380 N·mm-2, 1311 N·mm-2, 1260 N·mm-2 and 1190 N·mm-2. Comparing the properties obtained from the produced alloys with those of the commercial cutting tools, it was found that cutting tools manufactured from these produced alloys can compete favourably with cast cobalt tool, high speed steel (HSS) and tool steel.
Typhoid intestinal perforation in North Central Nigeria
BT Ugwu, SJ Yiltok, AT Kidmas, AS Opaluwa
West African Journal of Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Typhoid intestinal perforation is a surgical problem with severe morbidity and high mortality in North Central Nigeria. Patients and Methods: In order to determine the pattern and the prognostic indices, we studied 101 patients with typhoid intestinal perforation managed over a ten-year period Results: Children constituted 49% of the cases and majority(78%) of the patients were in the low socio-economic strata. The incidence peaked to 67% between November and March – the dry season in Nigeria. The male/female ratio was 1.9:1 with a mean age of 19 years and a mean hospitalization period of 18 days. There were 167 perforations; four involved the large bowel and appendix, and in 72.2% cases, the perforation was single. The mortality rate was 13.9%, affected mostly children and significantly worsened by prolonged perforation-surgery interval > 72 hours, jaundice, convulsion, ASA V, faecal peritonitis and re-exploration for early intra-peritoneal complications. Morbidity rate was 65.3% and significantly affected more children than adults and associated with perforation-surgery interval of between 24 and 72 hours, haematochezia and multiple perforations. Moribund patients fared better when operated upon under local anaesthesia with adequate analgesia. The least traumatic but effective surgical procedure that could seal the perforations and keep the peritoneum clean gave the best results. Children who survived up to 5 days and adults who survived up to 10 days after surgery had better chances of survival. Conclusion: The most significant prognostic factor is late presentation which prolongs perforation-surgery interval and the other complication and mortality indices are directly influenced by it.
Male breast malignancy in Jos University Teaching Hospital
AT Kidmas, BT Ugwu, AN Manasseh, D Iya, AS Opaluwa
West African Journal of Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Male breast malignancies are rare. Cancer of the male breast accounts for about 1% of all breast cancers. Poor level of awareness often results in late presentation and delayed diagnosis in our environment. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of all cases of male breast cancer (MBC) managed in Jos University Teaching Hospital over a 17-year period (January 1987-December 2003.) Results: A total of 302 cases of breast malignancies were managed over the study period. Twenty-six (8.6%) of these were males giving a male:female ratio of 1:10.6. The ages of the 26 MBC cases ranged from 12 years to 85 years, with a mean of 57.9 years and median age of 67 years. The right breast was affected in 15 and the left in 11. Mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 months with a range of 3 months to 4 years. All the patients had history of breast lumps, 21 (80.8%) of which were painless. Skin ulceration and axillary node enlargement were present in 19(73.1%) and 24(92.3%) respectively. Five (19.2%) were stage II; 15(57.7%) stage III and 6(23.1%) stage IV. There were 23 (88.5%) carcinomas, 2 (7.7%) fibrosarcomas and a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type in 20 (76.9%) of all breast malignancy and 20 (87.0%) of all breast carcinomas. Modified radical mastectomy (mastectomy with axillary clearance with or without division of the pectoralis minor muscle) was done in 10(38.5%) patients. Two of these were fibrosarcomas. Simple mastectomy was done in 13 (50%) as toilet procedures for advanced disease. The only case of Hodgkin's lymphoma had chemotherapy. Bilateral orchidectomy (BO), Tamoxifen, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were offered in 7(26.9%), 13(50%), 17(65.4%) and 7(26.9%) patients respectively. Wound infection was the most common complication in 14(53.8%) patients. There was no case of hospital mortality. Conclusion: MBC accounts for 8.6% of all breast cancers in our centre. It affects elderly males. Late presentation with advanced disease and ulceration is a common feature in our environment.
Cholecystectomy without Operative Cholangiography.
AZ Sule, A Opaluwa, EO Ojo, B Ismaila, O Dades, A Ale, SD Peter
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: Background:: Cholelithiasis is a very common condition whiich may be complicated by the presence ssessing the ability of non-invasive test as useful predictors of Common Bile Duct of common bile duct stones (Choledocholithiasis). This prospective descriptive study was aimed at assessing the ability of non-invasive test as useful predictors of Common Bile Duct Stones (CBDS) in a resource limited environment. The Setting was a hospital-based cohort over a six year period in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 40 consecutive patients (16 males and 24 females), aged between 12 and 67 years with gall bladder stones; 7 of whom had clinical, morphologic and biologic indices of CBDS underwent open cholecystectomy wiithout operative cholangiography. Selection of patients for common bile duct exploration can be achieved using the three predictive criteria (clinical, morphologic and biologic) where facilities for intraoperative cholangiography are not available. A short and dilated cystic duct, a dilated common bile duct and/or palpable common bile duct stones found at surgery are complementary predictive indices. Results: The overall prevalence of CBDS was 17.5%. The prevalence was 15% in patients over 50 years of age and 2.5% in patients under 50 years of age. In those over 60 years, it was 5%. Age and the existence of jaundice, recurrent low grade fever and abdominal pain were found to be associated with CBDS. Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased 7.8, 1.6, 2.95 and 3.85 times beyond their average normal reference values. The mean CBD diametter was 1.74cm. All CBDS were palpated at operation. Serum amylase was normal in all our patients including those with CBDS. All patients who had gall bladder stones but no CBDS had normal serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphatase. They also had no jaundiice, fever, abdominal pain or a dilated CBD and/or CBDS. Conclusiion: Evaluation of patients at risk for choledocholithiasis can be achieved with safety using clinical, sonographic and biologic parameters. Such parameters might contribute to reducing unnecessary costly or invasive investigations and help rationalize the diagnostic strategy for choledocholithiasis in countries with limited resources.
Mortality and Morbidity Following Repair for Lumbosacral Myelomeningoceles
G. O. Igun, A. Z. Sule, N. K. Dakum, A. S. Opaluwa
Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research , 2000,
Abstract: A retrospective study of 220 infants with myelomeningoceles was carried out to evaluate the results of management by non-operative (NO) and Delayed Surgical Closure (DSC). One hundred and twenty infants were managed by NO versus 100 for DSC during a 14-year period. There was an increase in the number of infants with patchy sensory loss from 15% at admission to 25% at 3 months post admission in NO versus an increase from 19% to 60 % for DSC. Similar figures for faecal incontinence for NO were 50% to 55% versus 52% to 68% for DSC. Hospital mortality for NO was 33% versus 6% for DSC. Wound infection occurred in NO in 46% versus 10% for DSC. At 2 years in NO, there were no survivors versus 52 surviving children in DSC. This study suggests treatment by DSC compared to NO was more effective in decreasing the mortality and morbidity associated with management of lumbo-sacral myelomeningoceles (Nig J Surg Res 2000; 2:139-143) KEY WORDS: Myelomeningoceles, delayed surgical closure, mortality, morbidity
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish and Sediments from UKE Stream, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
O. D. Opaluwa,M. O. Aremu,L. O. Ogbo,J. I.magaji
Current World Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.7.2.04
Abstract: The levels of lead, zinc, copper, iron, manganese, cadmium and mercury were determined in various body parts of two species of catfish; Clarias gariepinus and Synodontis schall, water and sediment samples from Uke stream using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) method. The results obtained showed that iron (Fe) had the highest concentration with average of 8.78 mg/g and 7.51 mg/l in sediment and water respectively followed by Zn with 4.79 mg/g (sediment) and 3.19 mg/l (water) while Cd had the lowest concentration of 0.035 mg/g and 0.023 mg/l in the sediment and water respectively. In the two fish species, zinc (0.17 – 3.25 mg/g) was the most highly concentrated in the various matrices while lead (0.011 – 0.031mg/g) was the lowest. Metal levels in the various body parts of the two species of fish studied were found to be more concentrated in either, the head, gills or the intestine. In both species zinc had the widest variability while lead was the least. The metal levels determined in water and sediment are all above the tolerable limits recommended by regulatory bodies which is an indication that this ecosystem is contaminated with heavy metals which would eventually end up in the food chain. The metals determined in various body parts of two species of catfish were below deleterious level; however there is the need for regular monitoring of the heavy metal load in this water body and the aquatic organisms in there because of the long term effects.
The influence of the different elements of an organic molecule structure on the main kinetic parameters of its unimolecular reaction in the high-pressure region  [PDF]
David Krinkin
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.38090
Abstract: The most general dynamic tendencies of the energy redistribution in the high-pressure region are considered. Their influence on the possible deviations from the kinetic conceptions, which is now generally accepted, is examined. In this way, the structural elements of an organic molecule that promote internal energy mobilization in the high-pressure region and, conversely, hamper it, are defined. The first of these elements reduces both the Arrhenius parameters of the unimolecular reactions while the second leads to the opposite results. Some well-known exceptions to existing kinetic theories, which find an explanation in the framework of these proposed concepts, is considered. The proposed concept is very general as distinct from the existing dynamic studies, which investigate more particular details of the separate bond behaviors. The proposed general concept can broaden the study of chemical kinetics.
Raising Engagement and Enhancing Learning: School Community Partnerships That Work for Students at Promise  [PDF]
David Zyngier
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.24053
Abstract: This paper reports on a pilot study that investigates the widely reported issue of underachievement of students from Culturally Linguistically and Economically Diverse (CLED) backgrounds. It involves 15 university education faculty student volunteers and over 40 students and their families in primary (elementary) schools situated in disadvantaged communities of Victoria whose students come from 40 different nationalities, speaking 36 languages and with 75 per cent of its student cohort coming from Non English Speaking Backgrounds. A partnership was formed to focus on the problem of CLED children’s disengagement from their academic learning. We focus on how a productive partnership between schools and a university impact on inclusive teaching and learning practices both at the school and the university level. We investigate whether such an intervention can have an impact on engagement levels and the learning and social outcomes of students from refugee, migrant and working class families. Privileging participant voice we analyze data from interviews, surveys and focus groups with students, teachers and parents to argue that such a program has the capacity to re-engage underachieving students at a minimal cost to the community as an alternative model to other expensive and unsuccessful intervention programs. We conclude that at the core of this successful program is the need for both participants to feel they are empowered in the process. We know that student outcomes can be enhanced when the students feel connected to and involved in their community. Through this project, the students have the opportunity to experience greater community engagement leading to improved school attendance and retention, as well as better academic outcomes.
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