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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219736 matches for " Onyenwe Ephraim C "
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Healthcare-seeking behavior, treatment delays and its determinants among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in rural Nigeria: a cross-sectional study
Ukwaja Kingsley N,Alobu Isaac,Nweke Chibueze O,Onyenwe Ephraim C
BMC Health Services Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-25
Abstract: Background Nigeria ranks fourth among 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Although it reached 99% DOTS coverage in 2008, current case detection rate is 40%. Little is known about delays before the start of TB therapy and health-seeking behaviour of TB patients in rural resource-limited settings. We aimed to: 1) assess healthcare-seeking behaviour and delay in treatment of pulmonary TB patients, 2) identify the determinants of the delay in treatment of pulmonary TB. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult new pulmonary TB patients notified to the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) by three rural (two mission/one public) hospitals. Data on health-seeking and delays were collected using a standardised questionnaire. We defined patient delay as the interval (weeks) between the onset of cough and the first visit to any health provider, and health system delay as the time interval (weeks) between patient's first attendance to any health provider, and the onset of treatment. Total delay is the sum of both delays. Multiple linear regression models using nine exposure variables were built to identify determinants of delays. Results Of 450 patients (median age 30 years) enrolled, most were males (55%), subsistent farmers (49%), rural residents (78%); and 39% had no formal education. About 84% of patients reported first consulting a non-NTP provider. For such patients, the first facilities visited after onset of symptoms were drug shops (79%), traditional healers (10%), and private hospitals (10%). The median total delay was 11 (IQR 9–16) weeks, patient delay 8 (IQR 8–12) and health system (HS) delay 3 (IQR 1–4) weeks. Factors associated with increased patient delay were older age (P <0.001) longer walking distance to a public facility (<0.001), and urban residence (P <0.001). Male gender (P = 0.001) and an initial visit to a non-NTP provider (P = 0.025) were independent determinants of prolonged HS delay. Those associated with longer total delay were older age (P <0.001), male gender (P = 0.045), and urban residence (P<0.001). Conclusion Overall, TB treatment delays were high; and needs to be reduced in Nigeria. This may be achieved through improved access to care, further education of patients, engagement of informal care providers, and strengthening of existing public-private partnerships in TB control.
New Trends in Corrosion Analysis of Al-Sn Alloy Duplex System  [PDF]
Chinedu Ekuma, Eziaku Osarolube, Ephraim O. Chukwuocha, Michael C. Onyeaju
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2011.12006
Abstract: The corrosion characterization of binary Al – Sn alloy systems has been statistically analyzed in the light of developed model equations. It was observed that the modeled corrosion penetration rate values generated using the developed model equations are in tandem with the experimental values.
Regionalisation and Its Impact on Quality Assurance in Higher Education  [PDF]
Ephraim Mhlanga
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326162
Abstract: In many parts of the world, higher education is still predominantly shaped at national level, and tends not only to reflect but also to underscore the specific traditions and circumstances of individual countries (Enders, J. 2002:1). As a result, it has been mainly assessed in the context of national systems with very little attention being paid to its international dimension. In Southern Africa, this trend has largely been due to the nature of relationship that prevails between higher education and the nation state. This trend has started changing as globalisation and internationalisation factors exert more and more influence on the shaping of the institution of a university. This article argues that in Southern Africa, globalisation manifests itself through regionalisation, a process that has ushered in standardisation of quality assurance systems; a new managerialism in the management of higher education institutions; marketisation and commodification of knowledge; changing forms of state-university relationships; greater emphasis on efficiency, cost saving and income-generating discourse; the forging of university-private sector partnerships; and increasing staff and student mobility in the region and on the continent. The article pursues these themes and shows how they impact on the quality of delivery of three case universities in Southern Africa.
Optoelectronic Characterization of Chemical Bath Deposited CdxCo1-xS Thin Film  [PDF]
Chinedu E. Ekuma, Mishark N. Nnabuchi, Eziaku Osarolube, Ephraim O. Chukwuocha, Michael C. Onyeaju
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.29119
Abstract: Cadmium Cobalt Sulphide (CdxCo1-xS) thin film was deposited on microscopic glass substrate using chemical bath deposition technique at room temperature from aqueous solutions of Cadmium Chloride, Cobalt Chloride and Thiourea in which ammonium solution was used as complexing agents. The optical properties were characterized using the absorbance and transmission measurement from Unico UV-2102 PC spectrophotometer, at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range of 200 - 1000 nm. We report the deposition and optimization of the growth parameter with respect to time which showed that the band gap energy and the composition verified from the extended Vegard’s law are highly dependent on deposition time. The average transmittance of the film in VIS-NIR region ranges between 30% and 78% with absorbance range of 0.15 - 0.47 within the same wavelength range. The film was also observed to exhibit poor reflectance (11 < R% < 20) which declined albeit exponential within the entire studied wavelength range. From absorbance and transmittance spectra, the band gap energy determined for the film deposited at various time: 19 h, 21 h and 24 h are 2.25 eV, 2.17 eV and 2.05 eV respectively, in that order. The composition of the ternary system for 19 h; 21 h, and 24 h were found to be (x = 0.75; 0.83 and 0.94), respectively. Other optical and dielectric properties of the films were also characterized. Based on the exhibited properties of the film, it can be concluded that it is a promising material for selective coatings for solar cells; effective coatings for poultry houses; use as antireflective coating materials, and for fabrication of optoelectronic devices.
Prevalence of Gastro ntest nal Helm nth Paras tes (GIHP) of dogs presented at the Un vers ty of N ger a Veter nary Teach ng Hosp tal (UNVTH) between 1994-2002
IW Onyenwe, EO Ikpegbu
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Records of 908 and 739 dogs investigated for Gastro-intestinal Helminth Parasite (GIHP) at the University of Nigeria Veterinary Teaching Hospital, UNVTH for the periods 1994-2002 and 1985-1993 respectively were studied to determine the type of GIHP commonly encountered, the influence of Age, Season, Sex, Breed, Environment (Residence) and Study Time Interval on their prevalence. Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis and Dipylidium caninum accounted for 135 (14.87%), 67 (7.38%) and 17 (1.87%) respectively between 1994-2002 187 (25.30%), 104 (14.07%) and 77 (10.42%) respectively between 1985-1993. There was a strong association between the age-group, breed, study time interval and environment (residence) respectively with the Prevalence while the variation in sex and season was not significant (P>0.05). The Public Health importance of these GIHP of dogs are discussed and recommendations to facilitate similar retrospective studies are made. KEY WORDS: Gastrointestinal, Helminths, Dog, Ancylostoma, Toxocara, Dipylidium Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol.25(1) 2004: 21-25
Socio-Economic Impacts of Flooding on the Residents of Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Elenwo Ephraim Ikechukwu
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.61001
Abstract: Floods are naturally occurring phenomena that are part of the physical and biological process which have shaped our nation’s landscape. It occurs in Nigeria environment when there is heavy rain fall for prolonged period of time. The data collection for this research was by use of primary and secondary information; questionnaire was administered by face to face interviews and key informant surveys. Analytical technique was the univariate statistical methods. The results revealed that there is clear evidence of damages to properties and that there are hazards and risks faced by these households as shown in Tables 1-4 respectively. Table 3 specifically shows the financial losses incurred annually by residents to the tune 5 million naira and above. However, the continued hazards and risks as a result of flood incidence have affected their overall income which hitherto is found within (N20000.00 - N25000.00) about 22.8% of the respondents fall in this income bracket. Furthermore, the research also revealed that about 30% say the flood has affected their income, while 29.4% say their buildings are affected. Also about 37.8% of respondents say that the flood incidence occurs all through the rainy season. The research recommends an aggressive review of the Port Harcourt Master Plan and the implementation of the development control tools in the 1992 Urban and Regional Planning Law.
Assessment of the Activities of Scavengers in Obio/Akpor Local Government, Rivers State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Elenwo Ephraim Ikechukwu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.63027
Abstract: This study was carried out based on consistent observations on the activities of scavengers of scrap metal in Obio/Akpor local government Rivers State. The study was carried out to ascertain the profitability of scrap metal scavenging and how scrap metal waste can generate wealth to the public and the government. The study made use of primary and secondary data with the former being the main focus. The data were analyzed using the simple percentage, while the hypothesis was tested by means of the chi-square. The study findings revealed that there was a relationship between waste and wealth in relation to scrap metal scavenging. The researches therefore make the following recommendations; that scavengers should form co-operatives so that they can pull their efforts and resources together and bargain collectively. Government and nongovernmental organization should enlighten them through seminars, workshops, etc., on how to carry out their activities in an environmentally safe manner. The state government should encourage scavenging by enacting a law to back the profession and make it attractive for the teaming youths to venture into.
The Effects of Road and Other Pavement Materials on Urban Heat Island (A Case Study of Port Harcourt City)  [PDF]
Elenwo Ephraim Ikechukwu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.64033
Abstract: Urban centers are consistently exhibiting higher temperature than its surrounding suburban rural areas. The large amount of heat generated from urban structures such as road materials and pavement materials and other anthropogenic heat sources are the main causes of Urban Heat Island (UHI). The sources of data for this research included primary and secondary sources. Other techniques employed for data collection were direct measurement and readings on the road and pavement materials. The research found out that, there was consistency in rising temperature at different time of the day by the different road and pavement materials. Asphalt has the greatest effect of increasing the urban temperature four degrees higher, followed by concrete, three degree rise in temperature, and earth (ordinary ground) by two degree rise and vegetation (grass) by one degree rise in temperature. The overall effect on the residents of the study area ranges from increase in hotness of the day; 44.6% respondents agrees; while 34.3% says it affects the ambient air quality of the area, and other effects such as increased ground level ozone, suffocation, sleeplessness and restlessness as a result of excessive high temperature especially at night are identified in this paper. The research recommends the review or redesigning of the entire Port Harcourt city Master Plan to make provision for creation of more green areas rather than pavements and concreted areas to reduce the effects of (UHI) and ultimately improve the comfort and living conditions of the people in a the garden city Port Harcourt.
The Socio-Economic Impact of the Greater Port Harcourt Development Project on the Residents of the Affected Areas  [PDF]
Elenwo Ephraim Ikechukwu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.31010
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the socio-economic affected Communities and the Greater Port Harcourt Development Project in Rivers State. The data used for study were obtained through questionnaire. The generated data were analyzed using the factor analysis and paired t test. It was observed that the computed t-scores (-2.729) and (-2.895) exceeded the values of t, indicated in the table. The T-test, values showed that the occurrence of hazards and risks on the residents of affected communities in Port Harcourt was significantly related to the activities of greater Port Harcourt project, and also the socio-economic life of residents of the communities was significantly affected by the activities of greater Port Harcourt project. The study has shown that there is an undercurrent of dissatisfaction with the greater Port Harcourt project in many of the comments put forward by the communities because of historical reasons. However, whatever reasons the host communities may have is manifestly not strong enough to stop the government in its proposal to transform the city decay to a world class city internationally recognized for excellence.
Dynamic Models of Animal Movement with Spatial Point Process Interactions
James C. Russell,Ephraim M. Hanks,Murali Haran
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: When analyzing animal movement, it is important to account for interactions between individuals. However, statistical models for incorporating interaction behavior in movement models are limited. We propose an approach that models dependent movement by augmenting a dynamic marginal movement model with a spatial point process interaction function within a weighted distribution framework. The approach is flexible, as marginal movement behavior and interaction behavior can be modeled independently. Inference for model parameters is complicated by intractable normalizing constants. We develop a double Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform Bayesian inference. We illustrate our approach through the analysis of movement tracks of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
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