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Late Commencement of Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Three Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Centres in Benue State Nigeria: A Neglected Correlate of Tuberculosis Management  [PDF]
Onyemocho Audu, Shember AgelaIgbabul, Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Istifanus A. Joshua, Gabriel O. Anefu, Samson Ejiji Isa
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.52011
Abstract: Background: Most researches on the correlate of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes place emphasis on sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus status and CD4+ count of patients and nutrition among others. This study assessed the effect of delay in commencement of anti-TB regimen on the treatment outcomes of all Tuberculosis patients treated between 2011 and 2014 in three directly observed treatment short course centres in Benue State, Nigeria. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study with convenient sampling technique was used for all registered Tuberculosis patients enrolled for treatment within the reviewed period. Chi-square (χ2) test was used for test of association between the independent variables and the main outcomes of the study, with statistical significance set at p-value of 5%. Results: Of the total 1711 cases reviewed, the males to females ratio was 3.9:1. The mean age for the males’ patients was 39.0 ± 15.3 years and the females 33.7 ± 14.2 years. Majority of the patients were new pulmonary Tuberculosis cases and they commenced their treatment after 3 weeks of diagnosis. Higher failure and death rate were reported amongst the patients who commenced their treatment late (78.7% and 42.5% respectively). The relationship between the treatment outcome and the time of commencement of anti-TB drug regimen was statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Commencement of anti-TB drugs in all diagnosed Tuberculosis patients is an important correlate that must be addressed in order to achieve the global goal of reducing Tuberculosis prevalence to the level at which it will no longer constitute a public health problem in Nigeria.
Evaluation of Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome of TB/HIV Co-Infection: A Four-Year Retrospective Cohort Study in HIV-Prevalent Setting of North Central Nigeria  [PDF]
Abiodun Hassan, Richard Olukolade, Queen Ogbuji, Audu Onyemocho, Lucia Okwuonye, Shember-agela Igbabul, Josephine Okechukwu, Oluremilekun Kusimo, Adewale Osho, Kehinde Osinowo, Oladapo Ladipo
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.43015
Abstract: Background: Despite the availability of highly effective treatment for decades, Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Nigeria due to the increasing association between HIV and TB observed over the past three decades when HIV was discovered. However, the proportion of TB and or TB/HIV co-infected patients who have successful TB treatment outcome is not well known. This study determined the treatment outcome of TB/HIV co-infected patients with HIV negative patients in two states in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of secondary data from eight Directly Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course and Anti- Retroviral Therapy (ART) service providers in Benue and Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria, was carried out. The period under review covers January, 2010 to December, 2013. Results: Out of the total 5266 TB cases reviewed, the HIV prevalence rate was 52%. They were predominantly (53.3%) male with mean age of 34.4 years (SD = 15.1 years). More than two-third (72.5%) of HIV-negative patients had successful treatment compared to 1718 (62.7%) HIV-positive patients. Of the 2334 HIV co-infected patients, 19.5% defaulted, 11.5% had died, 5.6% were transferred out and 0.7% failed treatment compared to HIV-negative patients amongst whom 18.3% defaulted, 3.6% died, 3.9% were transferred out and 1.6% failed treatment (p < 0.05). TB/HIV co-infected patients with baseline CD4 of ≥300 cell/mm3 are more likely to have successful treatment outcome {OR-1.541 (95% CI = 1.030 - 2.305) p = 0.035}. Patients ≥45 years old and those not on Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) are more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome {OR-1.022 (95% CI = 0.643 - 1.488) p = 0.918 and OR-1.306 (95% CI = 0.956 - 1.555) respectively. Conclusion: The favourable treatment outcome of HIV-negative patients is more than that of HIV-positive patients and the most probable predictable factor responsible is the CD4 count of patient; indicating that TB/HIV co-infection has remained a major public health problem in Benue state and FCT. Hence there is the need for sustained strengthening and expansion of the national TB/HIV programmes.
Sociodemographic Correlates of Choice of Health Care Services in Six Rural Communities in North Central Nigeria
Onyemocho Audu,Ishaku Bako Ara,Abdujalil Abdullahi Umar,Victoria Nanben Omole,Solomon Avidime
Advances in Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/651086
Abstract: Household expenditure on health has increasingly remained a major source of health care financing in Nigeria despite the introduction of several social health scheme policies provided by the government for meeting the health care costs of patients. Recognizing these limitations, this study assessed the type of health care services people commonly use in various illnesses and the sociodemographic correlates of the preferred health care services by household heads in six rural communities of North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study design was used to study 154 household heads in the settlements using a multistage sampling method. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate independent predictors that had significant chi-square at . The leading causes of illness experienced by respondents were medical conditions (42.0%) and 41.7% of them sought treatment from patent medicine vendors. The dominant reasons for health-seeking preferences were financial access (53.7%) and proximity (48.6%). Age had a higher impact (Beta = 0.892) on the health-seeking preferences of the respondents as compared to their occupation and religion (Beta = 0.368 and ?0.746, resp.). Therefore, in order to meet the health care of patients, it is pertinent that the unmet needs of patients are properly addressed by appropriate agencies. 1. Introduction Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including preventive, curative, and palliative interventions whether directed to individuals or populations [1]. It is, therefore, a necessity and a basic human need. Based on that recognition, the Alma-Ata declaration of the 1978 Primary Health Care (PHC) conference, endorsed by practically all governments, called for social and economic guarantees that would ensure that the basic health needs for all citizens of the world will be achieved by or before the year 2000 [2]. When the goal post of the Alma-Ata declaration was almost approaching, representatives from 189 countries met at the Millennium Summit in New York to adopt the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs just like the PHC declaration also place health at the heart of development and represent commitment by governments throughout the world to reduce poverty and hunger, lack of education, and gender inequality and to tackle ill-health conditions [3]. Unfortunately, for most developing countries, the prospects of achieving even a minimal level of adequacy in health services and health remains a mirage. While health care needs are increasing,
Outcome of Management of 5 Cases of Abdominal Pregnancies  [PDF]
Augustine Ochigbo Ojabo, Samuel Kuma Hembah-Hilekaan, Onyemocho Audu, Ehiagwina Andrew Okoh, Nwoyi Otu Oka
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101643
Abstract: Abdominal pregnancies are rare; however, they are still frequently missed pre-operatively. This presents diagnostic and treatment dilemma especially in resource-constrained settings where CT-scan and MRI are not readily available for accurate diagnosis. Five cases of abdominal pregnancies were managed over an eighteen-year period. In 2 cases, the condition was diagnosed preoperatively. The age range of the patients was from 32 to 36 years with a mean of 32.4 years. All 5 patients recovered fully; 4 required at least 2 units of blood transfusion; the placenta was left behind in 1 case; 1 required methotrexate to enhance placental resorption. One patient had recurrent intestinal obstruction and eventually had laparotomy and release of thick bands of adhesion. Two patients had conceived at least once each following treatment. Abdominal pregnancies present serious diagnostic and management dilemma especially in low resource settings. A high index of suspicion and prompt laparotomy can be life-saving. There is little information known about future fertility after abdominal pregnancy.
The Effect of the Challawa Industrial Estate on the Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Levels of Portable Water Supply in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria  [PDF]
Abdulrahman Audu, Abdulhakeem Idowu
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.32003

It has been observed that the portable water quality obtained from various locations in Kano Metropolis has shown greater variations in the recent past. Attempts have been made to ascertain the reasons for the variations even though the supplies were from only two treatments plants that obtain their raw water from the same source. A total of 92 water samples comprising of raw (from plants) and treated (from the plants and taps) were collected during rainy and dry seasons between April 2010 and May, 2012 and analyzed using standard analytical techniques. The results of analysis gave the physiochemical properties with range as follows: pH (0.06 ± 6.7 - 6.04 ± 0.02) conductivity (7.23 ±0.04 - 13.33 ± 0.22 S/Cm), turbidity (5.00 ± 0.01 - 449.22 ±1.32 NTU), suspended solids (107.33±3.45 - 712.11 ±5.33 mg/dm3), total dissolved solids (18.50 ± 0.85 -186 .78 ± 2.48 mg/dm3 ), alkalinity (12.53± 0.32 - 80.75 ± 1.23 mg/dm3) and hardness (29.50 ± 1.22 - 58.67 ± 2.34 mg/dm3). The pH values were generally acidic while the turbidity and total solid especially in some locations were higher than the permissible levels set by the World Health Organization for portable water. The concentration of heavy metals (mg/dm3) were found in the following ranges Fe (0.10 ± 0.04 - 0.30 ± 0.02), Cu (0.01 ± 0.001 - 0.03 ± 0.002), Zn (0.13 ± 0.06 - 0.39 ±0.02), Pb (0.03 ± 0.01 - 0.17 ± 0.02), Mn (0.03 ± 0.004 - 0.13 ± 0.003), Cr (0.10 ± 0.04 - 0.31 ± 0.03). The highest values of Fe, Cu and Mn were recorded along the older distribution channel of Challawa. The levels of Pb and Cr were generally high in both routes which are also observed in the raw water used at the two treatments plants. The results obtained from heavy metal concentrations fell within the maximum allowable limit set by the World Health Organization for portable water except in the cases of Pb and Cr. The high Fe, Mn, Cu levels as obtained in the Challawa route were attributed to leaching from rusting in the old galvanized metal pipe-work in the distribution channel. The levels of chromium and lead were similar in the two networks showing that the raw water used in the both treatment plants were responsible for the high values obtained and were not effectively removed by the treatment processes.

Design and Analysis of Some Third Order Explicit Almost Runge-Kutta Methods  [PDF]
Abdulrahman Ndanusa, Khadeejah James Audu
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.71002
Abstract: In this paper, we propose two new explicit Almost Runge-Kutta (ARK) methods, ARK3 (a three stage third order method, i.e., s = p = 3) and ARK34 (a four-stage third-order method, i.e., s = 4, p = 3), for the numerical solution of initial value problems (IVPs). The methods are derived through the application of order and stability conditions normally associated with Runge-Kutta methods; the derived methods are further tested for consistency and stability, a necessary requirement for convergence of any numerical scheme; they are shown to satisfy the criteria for both consistency and stability; hence their convergence is guaranteed. Numerical experiments carried out further justified the efficiency of the methods.
Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Joseph Clement Akan, Stephen I. Audu, Audu, Zakari Mohammed, Victor Obioma Ogugbuaja
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46071

Roadside soil samples were collected from four sites (heavy traffic area (Wurukum); industrial site (Gboko road); residential area (Federal Lowcost) and FederalMedicalCenter(Wadata) representing different activities across the Benue Metropolis. At each of the sample site, roadside soils were collected at different distance from the edge of the main road (2, 10, 30, 40 and 60 meters). In each of the distance, roadside soil were collected at three depth of 0 -1 cm, 2 -4 cmand 4 - 6 cm for the determination of pH, organic matter, organic carbon, Cu, Cd, Fe, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and organic carbon were determined using standard procedures, while heavy metals were determined using Perkin-Elmer Analyst 300 Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Zinc was observed to show the higher levels in all the sampling sites, such higher level can be related back to the wear-and-tear of vehicle components as a result of the stop-start traffic patterns and brake pads. The concentrations of all the metals in the four sampling sites decreased exponentially with distance from the edge of the road and dropped to the minimum levels at about 60 meters. Similarly, mean concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni were significantly higher around the industrial area (Gboko road) and heavy traffic (Wurunkum) areas than other sampling areas followed an increasing trend with the increase in depth. The vertical movement of all the metals, exhibited predominant association with soil pH and organic carbon. From the results of this study, the pH of the roadside soils from all the sampling points ranged from 4.56 to 7.71, which enhances increased of heavy metals down the soil profiles. Organic carbon content ranged of 0.27% to 5.44% across all the sampling points appears to increase

Autism among Primary School Pupils in Benin Metropolis: Implications for Counselling
EIV Audu, EO Egbochuko
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2010,
Abstract: The study investigated the existence of autism among primary school pupils in Benin City. The rationale for this study was as a result of the growing concern about autism worldwide. Knowledge about this disorder is still limited. Most parents and teachers still do not understand its diagnosis, symptoms and effects at home and school environments. This lack of understanding of this complex neuro-developmental disorder that affects a child’s social interaction, communication and behaviour has become pertinent for the present study to be carried. Survey research design was adopted; three (3) research questions were raised. The samples were 131 teachers. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data collected. The results revealed that autism exists among the sample used, that boys are more afflicted with the disorder than girls. Autism differs in occurrence with the age of pupils and the level of awareness of parents is low. Based on the findings, recommendations and implications for counselling were presented.
The Dynamics of E-Banking in the South-South Region of Nigeria
Audu Nathan Pelesai
International Business Management , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ibm.2011.388.397
Abstract: Using South-South region as the focal point, the study sets out to evaluate the driver and inhibitors of E-banking adoption in Nigeria using both the modified Dinz approach Friedman (Fr) and Chi-square Analytical Techniques. The study examined seventeen of the 25 licensed commercial banks in Nigeria by gathering data via their websites and questionnaire. The study reveals that the adoption level of E-banking is low at both the functionality and interactivity levels. The study also shows that there are factors that drive the of E-banking as an innovation, these factors include ease of use, privacy, accessibility and lower costs while on the other hand, inadequate public power supply, security on transaction, telecommunication/infrastructure as well as lack of knowledge of use reduces the level of E-banking adoption in Nigeria. On the whole, the study submits that banks should install and advance their websites on E-banking provide apply and ensure the existence of adequate security measures that will enhance customer s convenience, independence and confidence while the government through its agencies should collaborate with banks in the enlightenment/training of individuals on E-banking as well as provide the necessary legal and regulatory of framework of E-banking in the country.
Pathogenicity of Trypanosoma brucei in African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Water House)
PA Audu, EB Moveh
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2004,
Abstract: The course of trypanosomosis was investigated over a period of two weeks in six African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Six other rats served as uninfected control. The rats were each infected intraperitoneally with 0.2mls of blood containing approximately 2.0x105 T. brucei parasites. The prepatent period varied between 3 and 8 days post infection. The course of the disease was acute (6-8 days post infection). The mean rectal temperature of the infected group was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the control group, while the mean values of packed cell volume of the infected rats declined significantly (P<0.05) compared to the pre-infection and control values. The findings in this study are suggestive of susceptibility of the African giant rats to T. brucei. Key Words: Trypanosoma brucei; giant rat pathogenicity; aracmia Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol.25(1) 2004: 39-44
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