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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 111899 matches for " Onyemaechi O. Azu "
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Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of teachers at medical institutions
Onyemaechi O. Azu,Aniekan I. Peter,Aquaisua N. Aquaisua,Gabriel J.Ekandem
Health SA Gesondheid , 2013,
Abstract: Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it for educational purposes. Hence, there are vast applications in the medical field. We set out to survey the knowledge and opinion of lecturers of anatomy about plastinated specimen use in medical schools through the administration of questionnaires to respondents who participated at the Society of Experimental and Clinical Anatomists of Nigeria (SECAN) conference in 2011. It was found that 50.0%and 23.75%of respondents respectively, had their masters and doctorate degrees in Anatomy. Less than 8.0% utilised plastination as a tool for teaching as against 40%(plastic models), 36.25%(cadavers) and 15.0%(pathology pots). Conventional methods such as fixation by immersion (15.0%) and embalming (52.5%) with formaldehyde were commonly used for long term preservation of tissues in their various institutions. These methods were found to be less costly (25.0%), easy to use (56.25%) and the only method (12.25%) available, even though they posed some health hazards (96.0%). Whilst only 6.25%of the respondents did not know anything about plastination, 93.75%were aware of it. The advocacy for preservation of tissues by plastination has been gradual in developed countries. We recommend the use of plastinates in medical schools in Nigeria.
The Awareness of Medical Students in Nigerian Universities about the Use of Plastinated Specimens for Anatomical Studies
Onyemaechi Okpara Azu, Aniekan Imo Peter, Bassey Tom Etuknwa, Gabriel John Ekandem
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2011.0202
Abstract: Over the past decade, the role of anatomical teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum has changed considerably. At some medical schools, active dissection of cadaveric specimens is gradually being replaced by prosection-based methods and other resources such as e-learning, use of plastinated materials and models. Academic faculties in some of our medical schools are recently obtaining necessary skills in plastination technology which would aid in the future production and usage of plastinated prosections. The latter would be used as adjunct to wet cadaveric specimens in undergraduate anatomy teaching. The aim of this study was to examine students' views on the use of plastinated prosections for their anatomical learning. This was a cross-sectional study using questionnaires and focus group for data collection. The questionnaire was completed by 280 undergraduate medical and anatomy students out of 300 (response rate 93%). The majority of students (70%) have never heard of plastination before while 40 % of the remainder heard through the internet. Also, 94.29% rated plastinated prosections as a valuable resource for their anatomical learning and would want to learn about the technique. While 75% of respondents felt that students would benefit immensely from plastinated prosections, more than 78% said it should be used alongside other cadaveric materials. We conclude that plastinated prosections are an adequate resource for the early stages of undergraduate training, but that the learning experience may be further enhanced by providing opportunity for the study of wet cadaveric material.
The Awareness of Medical Students in Nigerian Universities about the Use of Plastinated Specimens for Anatomical Studies
Onyemaechi Okpara Azu,Aniekan Imo Peter,Bassey Tom Etuknwa,Gabriel John Ekandem
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Over the past decade, the role of anatomical teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum has changed considerably. At some medical schools, active dissection of cadaveric specimens is gradually being replaced by prosection-based methods and other resources such as e-learning, use of plastinated materials and models. Academic faculties in some of our medical schools are recently obtaining necessary skills in plastination technology which would aid in the future production and usage of plastinated prosections. The latter would be used as adjunct to wet cadaveric specimens in undergraduate anatomy teaching. The aim of this study was to examine students’ views on the use of plastinated prosections for their anatomical learning. This was a cross-sectional study using questionnaires and focus group for data collection. The questionnaire was completed by 280 undergraduate medical and anatomy students out of 300 (response rate 93%). The majority of students (70%) have never heard of plastination before while 40 % of the remainder heard through the internet. Also, 94.29% rated plastinated prosections as a valuable resource for their anatomical learning and would want to learn about the technique. While 75% of respondents felt that students would benefit immensely from plastinated prosections, more than 78% said it should be used alongside other cadaveric materials. We conclude that plastinated prosections are an adequate resource for the early stages of undergraduate training, but that the learning experience may be further enhanced by providing opportunity for the study of wet cadaveric material.
Doxycycline Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors in Experimental Models in Mice by Targeting Underlying Oxidative Stress  [PDF]
Benneth Ben-Azu, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Solomon Umukoro, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Aya-Ebi Okubo Eneni, Ezekiel O. Iwalewa
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.613048
Abstract: Current evidences support the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory signaling mechanisms in the treatment of schizophrenia; as cure for this disease still remains limited. Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic (a minocycline congener) with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and better pharmacokinetic profiles. Preclinical evidence indicates that minocycline possesses antipsychotic properties. This present study was designed to evaluate the effect of doxycycline on schizophrenia-like behaviors, as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress in mice brains. Novelty-induced rearing (NIR) behavior was used to evaluate the tranquilizing effect of doxycycline (25 - 200 mg/kg). The acute antipsychotic effects of doxycycline were assessed using apomorphine-induced stereotypy, ketamine-induced stereotypy, hyperlocomotion and enhanced immobility in forced swim test (FST). Catalepsy test was also employed to evaluate the extrapyramidal adverse effect of doxycycline in mice. The chronic antipsychotic effect of doxycycline was evaluated following oral administration of doxycycline in combination with ketamine (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 10 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, positive (locomotor activity), cognitive (Y-maze) and negative (FST) symptoms were assessed. Thereafter, levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated in mice brains. Doxycycline significantly (P < 0.05) decreased NIR, inhibited stereotypy induced by apomorphine and ketamine. Additionally, doxycycline significantly (P < 0.05) prevented ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion, cognitive deficit and reduced enhanced-immobility by ketamine in mice. Furthermore, doxycycline decreased malondialdehyde concentrations in a dose-related manner. Moreover, doxycycline significantly (P < 0.05) prevented the decrease in glutathione, and increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in brain tissues. The results from this study suggest that doxycycline ameliorated schizophrenic-like behaviors via mechanisms related to attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain.
Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis) in River Kaduna Discharge Forecasting
J.O. Folorunsho,E.O. Iguisi,M.B. Mu’azu,S. Garba
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The study and understanding of the amount of water that would be discharged by a stream in the future is of crucial importance to the water resources development, planning and management of any area. This is so because, stream flow data are very important for many areas of water engineering. The data used for this research include the monthly rainfall data for Kaduna town, Zaria and Jos, temperature data for Kaduna town, relative humidity for Kaduna town and the stage height data for the studied river and the discharge data. All the data used span the period 1975-2004 (30 years). These parameters are non-linear, stochastic (random) and uncertain in nature. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy based Inference System (ANFIS), an integrated system, comprising of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network was used to model the discharge forecast, because it can address and solve problems related to non-linearity, randomness and uncertainty of data. The ANFIS-based model developed uses 70% of data for training and 30% for checking; subsequently validation data of the variables were used to predict the discharge and test the model developed. From the analysis carried out on the ANFIS-based model; Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) found to be 107.62. The analysis shows high level of accuracy with regards to the ANFIS-based model developed in forecasting the river discharge especially with a correlation (r) value of 86%.
Development of an ANN-Based Model for Forecasting River Kaduna Discharge
J.O. Folorunsho,E.O. Iguisi,M.B. Mu’azu,S. Garba
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) provides a quick and flexible means of creating models for river discharge forecasting and has been shown to perform well in comparison with conventional methods. This paper presents a method of discharge prediction for River Kaduna by developing an ANN-based model. Given the major triple problems of unavailability, inconsistency and paucity of data, the water resources planning and development in any drainage basin always suffer a setback. Rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and the stage height (input variables) and discharge (target output) data were obtained for River Kaduna drainage basin for April-October 1975 to 2004. In order to develop the ANN model, the data set was partitioned into two parts of 24 months sets. 70% of the entire data was used as training data and 30% of the entire data used as the validation data. From the results obtained, the developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model developed in the PredictDemo NeuralWare Environment using the Neural Statistics shows a correlation value of 82%.
A Framework for Integrating Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis
Onyemaechi C. Nweke
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062366
Abstract: With increased interest in integrating environmental justice into the process for developing environmental regulations in the United States, analysts and decision makers are confronted with the question of what methods and data can be used to assess disproportionate environmental health impacts. However, as a first step to identifying data and methods, it is important that analysts understand what information on equity impacts is needed for decision making. Such knowledge originates from clearly stated equity objectives and the reflection of those objectives throughout the analytical activities that characterize Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), a process that is traditionally used to inform decision making. The framework proposed in this paper advocates structuring analyses to explicitly provide pre-defined output on equity impacts. Specifically, the proposed framework emphasizes: (a) defining equity objectives for the proposed regulatory action at the onset of the regulatory process, (b) identifying specific and related sub-objectives for key analytical steps in the RIA process, and (c) developing explicit analytical/research questions to assure that stated sub-objectives and objectives are met. In proposing this framework, it is envisioned that information on equity impacts informs decision-making in regulatory development, and that this is achieved through a systematic and consistent approach that assures linkages between stated equity objectives, regulatory analyses, selection of policy options, and the design of compliance and enforcement?activities.
Urban informal sector and unemployment in third world cities: The situation in Nigeria
COMFORT ONYEMAECHI CHUKUEZI
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n8p131
Abstract: The paper examines the role of urban informal sector in unemployment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. It explains that unemployment as one of the macroeconomic problems could be reduced through the informal sector participations provided it is well supported and managed through accessibility to credit and the like. Studies that have been carried out on the informal sector explain that those caught up in urban poverty resort to the informal sector as a survival strategy. It is against this background of increasing urban poverty and decline in formal employment opportunities in Nigeria that the paper tries to look into the issues of whether or not the informal sector is a panacea or a solution to unemployment in Nigeria
Comparison of Egg Production Performance and Egg Quality Traits of Pearl and Black Strains of Guinea Fowl in a Humid Rain-Forest Zone of Nigeria
O.M. Obike,U.K. Oke,K.E. Azu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Data on 272 eggs collected from Pearl (175 eggs) and Black (97 eggs) adult guinea fowl strains were analyzed to determine the egg production performance and egg quality characteristics of the birds. Data generated were analyzed using Students t-test. The external egg quality traits measured were egg weight, egg length, egg width, shell weight, shell thickness and egg shape index. Internal egg quality traits studied include egg mass, yolk weight, yolk height, yolk diameter, yolk index, albumen weight, albumen height and albumen diameter and albumen index. The production performance traits measured were egg number and Hen-Day Production (HDP). In addition, weekly body weight of the hens was also recorded. Egg number was significantly (p<0.05) different between the two strains. The mean values were 22.710.30 and 12.840.29, respectively for Pearl and Black. Although there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between HDP of the two strains, the Black strain had higher HDP in all the weeks except in weeks 1, 5 and 6. Among the internal traits, albumen diameter differed significantly (p<0.05) between Pearl and Black with mean values of 61.272.02 mm and 66.971.20 mm, respectively. Effect of strain was not observed for all the other egg traits measured. However, the significant difference (p<0.05) observed for egg number and albumen diameter between the strains suggests at least some degree of genetic dissimilarity, which implies that the strains could be used to improve egg production and egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl in the study region.
Effect of Coadministration of Neurovite and Lamivudine on the Histomorphology of the Cerebellum of Wistar Rats
A. I. Peter,M. B. Ekong,K. Davies,O. O. Azu,R. B. Bassey,L. O. Ugwu,I. U. Umoh
ISRN Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/258040
Abstract: Introduction. Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor antiretroviral agent used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. This study was to investigate the effects of coadministration of neurovite and lamivudine on the histomorphology of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Twenty Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups. Group A animals were the control treated with distilled water. Groups B, C, and D animals were treated, respectively, with therapeutic dose of lamivudine (4.28?mg/kg), a combination of lamivudine (4.28?mg/kg) and neurovite (7.05?mg/kg), and neurovite (7.05?mg/kg) alone, daily. The rats were sacrificed using chloroform inhalation, processed, and stained using H&E method. Results. There was severe cellular degeneration with dystrophic changes, vacuolization in the molecular and granular layers, and aggregation of swollen Purkinje cells in group B animals compared with group C animals which showed only slight cellular dystrophy and inflammation. The mean cellular population was significantly ( ) higher in the treatment groups compared with the control. Conclusion. There was amelioration of damage of the cerebellum in the animals treated with neurovite and lamivudine combination compared to animals treated with only lamivudine. Therefore, there is need to give neurovite to patients on lamivudine therapy. 1. Introduction Lamivudine (INN)6 or 3TC is a levorotary pyrimidone-1,3-oxathiolane derivative and has the molecular formula C8H11N3O3S. Lamivudine is an effective and well-tolerated agent for treating chronic hepatitis B infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [1, 2]. It is an antiretroviral drug in the therapeutic category of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [2]. Lamivudine is very useful in preventing HIV and hepatitis B from multiplying by way of its active form, lamivudine triphosphate (3TCTP) which is generated via intracellular triple phosphorylation process. Lamivudine competitively inhibits viral transcriptase by causing termination of DNA replication, thus interrupting HIV replication [3]. Antiretroviral treatment can significantly prolong the lives of people living with HIV. Modern combination therapy is highly effective and people with HIV and on antiretroviral treatment could live for the rest of their lives without developing AIDS [4]. Despite these improvements, the prolonged use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to certain neurologic complications such as myelopathy, neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and cognitive
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