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Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: the European Youth Heart Study
Yngvar Ommundsen, Lena Klasson-Heggeb?, Sigmund A Anderssen
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-32
Abstract: A cross-sectional study of 9 and 15-year-olds (N = 760; 379 boys and 381 girls) was conducted in which participants responded to a computer-based questionnaire (PEACH) tapping potentially location specific forms of physical activity as well as psycho-social and environmental correlates.Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the nine and fifteen year-olds self-reported their physical activity as located in three separate and specific contexts: a) school commuting, b) informal games play at school and c) organized sport, structured exercise and games play in leisure time. Dependent of location, psycho-social and environmental correlates explained between 15 and 55 percent of the variance in physical activity. The impact of peer support, enjoyment and perceived competence in physical activity generalized across the three locations. Enjoyment of physical education classes, parental support and teacher support, in contrast, confined to particular location-specific forms of physical activity. Generally, behavioural beliefs and environmental factors represented marginal correlates of all location-specific forms of activity.Young peoples' physical activity was identified as taking place in multiply genuine locations, and the psychosocial correlates of their physical activity seem to some extent to be location specific. Results may inform intervention efforts suggesting that targeting specific sets of psycho-social factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations, gender and age groups. Others, in contrast may prove effective in facilitating location specific physical activity, in which age may come to moderate the efficiency of intervention efforts.Previous research has shown that influences on young peoples' physical activity are multi-factorial. A variety of psychological, social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity for young people have been identified, and social-cognitive models that emphasize intrapersonal, micro-environmental i
The "Roms?s in Motion" community intervention: program exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity
Catherine Lorentzen, Yngvar Ommundsen, Anne Jenum, Ingar Holme
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-15
Abstract: 1497 persons in the intervention group attended the baseline survey in 2000 (50.6%) and 1204 (80.4 of baseline attendees) provided data on the outcome variables of the present study. In 2003, 1089 were still living in the area, and were re-invited to follow-up assessments. Current analyses are based on the 603 persons (mean age 49 ± 10 years) who provided baseline and follow-up data for the current purposes (56.6% follow-up rate). Process data, stages of change in physical activity, and potential psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity were assessed by questionnaires. The theory-based intervention was composed of communication, physical activity, environmental and participatory components. Data were analysed using frequency and descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-tests, and regression analyses.Exposure and participation rates in the various intervention components varied greatly (1.5–92.7%). Participation in walking groups and aerobic exercise groups, as well as having seen the "Walk the stairs"-poster were significantly and positively related to change in stages of change in physical activity (β = .12, p = .011; β = .211, p < .001; β = .105, p = .014, respectively). Additionally, having used the walk path was significantly and positively related to change in stages in women (β = .209, p = .001) but not in men (β = -.011, p = .879), and in Western people (β = .149, p = .003) but not in non-Westerners (β = -.293, p = .092). Observed significant relations were partly mediated by positive changes in psychosocial factors as social support from friends, perceived control, and physical activity identity.Findings revealed that particular intervention components, such as participation in physical activity groups, were more strongly related to forward transition in stages of change in physical activity than others. These findings together with results indicating that such transitions were mediated by specific psychosocial influences may improve theory and
Stability and change in potential correlates of physical activity and association with pubertal status among Norwegian children in the transition between childhood and adolescence
Mekdes Gebremariam, Ingunn Bergh, Lene Andersen, Yngvar Ommundsen, Mona Bjelland, Nanna Lien
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-56
Abstract: A total of 885 students from 25 control schools of an intervention study, the HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) study were included (mean age at baseline 11.2 (0.3)). The baseline took place in September 2007, the first follow-up in May 2008 and the second follow-up in May 2009. PA and its potential correlates (enjoyment of PA, self-efficacy related to barriers to PA, perceived support for PA from parents, friends and teachers, perceived social inclusion and perceived environmental opportunities for PA) were self-reported. Pubertal status was assessed using the Pubertal Development Scale. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to explore changes. Tracking was assessed using Spearman’s rank order correlation. Pubertal groups were compared using ANOVA or ANCOVA (controlling for BMI). Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate whether pubertal stage at age 11 would predict levels of correlates and PA at age 13.Potential correlates of PA and the behaviour itself were found to track moderately in the transition between childhood and adolescence. Small but significant changes in enjoyment of PA and teachers’ support for PA in both genders and in friends’ support for PA and perceived environmental opportunities for PA in females in a direction unfavourable to PA were detected. A few weak positive associations between pubertal stage and correlates of PA at age 11 were noted among boys.Enjoyment of PA, self-efficacy related to barriers to PA, perceived social support for PA, perceived social inclusion, perceived environmental opportunities for PA and the behaviour itself were found to be moderately stable in the transition between childhood and adolescence. Health promotion efforts in childhood targeting PA and its psychosocial and social-environmental correlates might have favourable effects in later years.
Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerised questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children's physical activity: the European Youth Heart Study
Yngvar Ommundsen, Angie Page, Po-Wen Ku, Ashley R Cooper
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-29
Abstract: Participants were 1875 boys and 2078 girls (total = 3958) aged 9–10 years (n = 1955, mean age = 9.65 ± 0.42) and 15–16 years (n = 2003, mean age = 15.49 ± 0.50) from four European countries in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Children completed the computerised self-assessment tool with support from the researcher if requested. Self-reported exercise and an objective measure of physical activity (Actigraph model 7164) were used for additional construct validation purposes.Overall evidence of good fit indicating satisfactory factorial validity and cross-cultural, age and gender invariance for 3 of the 4 measurement models were obtained. The majority of measures were also significantly different for those with high versus low levels of physical activity.Overall, the computerised questionnaire holds promise for use cross-culturally with male and female children and adolescents to measure perceived personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity. Further development of the measures pertaining to perceived environmental influences seems warranted.Optimal physical activity levels are suggested to be an important factor in the development and/or maintenance of childhood health [1-3]. Health benefits associated with physical activity include healthy growth and development, improved psychological well being and maintenance of energy balance [2,4,5]. Knowing the influences on physical activity in young people is an important first step in designing physical activity intervention programmes to increase physical activity levels in children and adolescents [6]. This is important as experiences of physical activity in childhood may impact on subsequent participation as an adult [2]. The strength of 'tracking' of physical activity is equivocal but is generally reported to be moderate throughout childhood and weaker from childhood to adulthood [7].Several factors have been described when trying to under
Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence?
Gebremariam Mekdes K,Bergh Ingunn H,Andersen Lene F,Ommundsen Yngvar
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-9
Abstract: Background There is a need for more longitudinal studies investigating the associations between screen-based sedentary behaviors (SB), dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity (PA). Methods In the HEIA cohort study, 908 children were followed from age 11 to age 13 (September 2007 – May 2009). The children self-reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks with sugar and snacks. TV/DVD use, computer/game use and leisure-time PA were also self-reported. Multilevel generalized linear mixed model analysis was used to assess longitudinal associations between the screen-based SB and each of the two other behaviors. Results Twenty-month changes in TV/DVD use and computer/game use were positively associated with changes in the consumption of soft drinks with sugar and unhealthy snacks in the same period; and inversely associated with change in vegetable consumption. Change in computer/game use was also inversely related to change in fruit consumption. An inverse but non-substantive association was found between change in TV/DVD use and change in leisure-time PA. Change in computer/game use was not significantly associated with change in leisure-time PA. Conclusions Changes in screen-based SB were associated with multiple unfavorable changes in dietary habits, although the associations were weak. These associations need to be further investigated in intervention/experimental studies, to assess whether changing screen-based SB will result in clinically relevant changes in dietary behaviors. However, the findings of this study suggest that screen-based SB and leisure-time PA are largely independent behaviors which should be addressed separately in health promotion activities.
Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)
Andreas Nilsson, Lars Bo Andersen, Yngvar Ommundsen, Karsten Froberg, Luis B Sardinha, Karin Piehl-Aulin, Ulf Ekelund
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-322
Abstract: A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status.In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group.Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination.Given the recent increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth [1-3], actions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce time being sedentary in young people have become a public health issue. To achieve this, knowledge of influences on PA behaviour is required. PA is influenced by a broad range of correlates at different levels (e.g. socio-demographic, environmental, individual behavioural correlates) [4,5]. While some correlates (e.g. age and ethnicity) can aid when identifying groups for PA interventions, examining the potential impact of modifiable correlates on daily PA levels in children is important for d
Changes in adolescents' intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and sedentary behaviour: Results at 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study - a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial
Mona Bjelland, Ingunn H Bergh, May Grydeland, Knut-Inge Klepp, Lene F Andersen, Sigmund A Anderssen, Yngvar Ommundsen, Nanna Lien
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-63
Abstract: In total, 1465 11-year-olds participated at the pre-test and the 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study. Parents (n = 349) contributed with process evaluation data. Self-reported intake of SSB was collected from the 11-year-olds assessing frequency and amount, while time used on watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use (weekday and weekend day) were assed by frequency measures. Data on awareness of the intervention and dose received were collected from parents. Covariance analyses (ANCOVA) were conducted testing for effects by gender and for moderation by WS and parental education.Time spent on TV/DVD (week p = 0.001, weekend p = 0.03) and computer/game-use (week p = 0.004, weekend p <.001), and the intake of SSB during weekend days (p = 0.04), were significantly lower among girls in the intervention group compared to the control group girls after 8 months. Girls' WS did not moderate these findings. However, no significant effects of the intervention were found for boys, but moderation effects were found for WS (week days: TV/DVD, p = 0.03 and computer/games, p = 0.02). There were no moderating effects of parental education for neither boys nor girls with respect to intake of SSB, time used for watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use. Parental awareness of the intervention was significantly higher among the parents of girls, while the parents of boys were more satisfied with the fact sheets.The preventive initiatives appeared to change behaviour in girls only. This study suggests that exploration of potential beneficial or negative effects of intervention in subgroups is important. In formative evaluation of obesity prevention studies it seems warranted to include issues related to gender, WS and parental involvement in order to enhance the effectiveness of preventive initiatives.Interventions to prevent unhealthy weight gain should aim at making a change in energy balance related behaviours (EBRB) [1]. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), television
Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial
Ingunn H Bergh, Mona Bjelland, May Grydeland, Nanna Lien, Lene F Andersen, Knut-Inge Klepp, Sigmund A Anderssen, Yngvar Ommundsen
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-63
Abstract: The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants.At mid-way enjoyment (p?=?.03), perceived social support from teachers (p?=?.003) and self-efficacy (p?=?.05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p?=?.001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p?=?.02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed among those receiving a high as opposed to a low intervention dose.The intervention affected both psychological and social-environmental determinants. Results indicate that social support from teachers might be a potential mediator of PA change, and that overweight adolescents might be in need of specially targeted interventions to avoid reducing their enjoyment of PA. Further studies should continue to assess how intervention effectiveness is influenced by the participants’ self-reported dose of intervention received.
Reliability of High Speed Ultra Low Voltage Differential CMOS Logic  [PDF]
Omid Mirmotahari, Yngvar Berg
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2015.65013
Abstract: In this paper, we present a solution to the ultra low voltage inverter by adding a keeper transistor in order to make the semi-floating-gate more stable and to reduce the current dissipation. Moreover, we also present a differential ULV inverter and elaborate on the reliability and fault tolerance of the gate. The differential ULV gate compared to both a former ULV gate and standard CMOS are given. The results are obtained through Monte-Carlo simulations.
This, I told myself, was really Africa .Des territoires et des femmes. Récits féminins de voyage en Afrique Australe à la fin du XIXe siècle “This, I told myself, was really Africa”. Of Territories and Women.Women’s Travel Narratives in Late 19th Century Southern Africa
Ludmila Ommundsen
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2007, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.648
Abstract: In Victorian Britain, travel writing was informed by an unprecedented colonial expansion — in particular, the “scramble for Africa”— and the rise of the women’s movement in the late 19th century. Fuelled by the notions of motherhood and domesticity that characterized late imperial society, the presence of women in colonies served the purpose of domesticating the South. Yet, as geographical conquest merges with sexual conquest, the narratives of some female travellers in Southern Africa unveil unexpected territories that manifest specific territorialities. Although conjuring up feminist utopias, weren’t these female writers trying to construct a conspicuous literary ghetto?
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