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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 115 matches for " Oluwatoyin Arinola Odetunde "
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Outcome of Late Presentation of Posterior Urethral Valves in a Resource-Limited Economy: Challenges in Management
Odutola Israel Odetunde,Oluwatoyin Arinola Odetunde,Adesoji Oludotun Ademuyiwa,Henrietta Uche Okafor,Uchenna Ekwochi,Jonathan Chukwuemeka Azubuike,Nene Elsie Obianyo
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/345298
Abstract: Delayed presentation of patients with posterior urethral valve with complications like severe urosepsis, uremia, and anemia are seen in our setting. Renal replacement therapy which should have been offered to these patients is not readily available for children in our country. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of late presentation and outcome of management of posterior urethral valve in a resource-limited setting. A descriptive retrospective study (1997–2009) was conducted. Data including pattern of presentation, duration of symptoms, complications, and outcome of initial management were analyzed. Twenty-one patients were seen. The median age was 3 years (2 days–13 years). The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 2.6 years. Nineteen patients (91%) presented with urosepsis while 8 patients (36%) presented with significant renal insufficiency. Laboratory findings varied from-mild-to marked elevation in serum creatinine. Radiological findings confirmed the diagnosis of posterior urethral valve. We concluded that late presentation is common in our setting. This is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Efforts at improving awareness and early diagnosis among the health team should be made to stem the tide. 1. Introduction Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the commonest cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male infants [1–3]. The incidence of this congenital anomaly in our setting is unknown, although reports from Unites States and Europe indicates that it occurs in about 1?:?8000 and 1?:?25,000 male live births [1, 3, 4]. Prolonged and unrelieved lower urinary tract obstruction leads to back pressure effects on the kidneys resulting in obstructive uropathy with renal impairment [5]. PUVs are also a common cause of chronic renal failure in children if treatment is delayed [6–8]. Late presentation in patients with PUV is associated with urosepsis, uremia, and anemia and these form the bulk of patients seen in our centre. Early diagnosis and prompt commencement of treatment is therefore germane to the overall outcome of these patients [9, 10]. This is particularly important in a resource—limited environment like ours where facilities for renal replacement therapy in children is not readily available. The aim of this study is to document the pattern of presentation in our centre and outcome of management. 2. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Records of patients with PUV at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (1997–2004) and Enugu State University of Technology Teaching
Foetal haemoglobin (HbF) status in adult sickle cell anaemia patients in Ibadan, Nigeria
JA Olaniyi, OG Arinola, AB Odetunde
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Aim: - Elevated HbF, among other biological and environmental factors, is responsible for decrease in mortality in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). This study determined the levels of HbF in adult SCA patients in steady state compared with HbAA controls. HbF was discussed in line with the clinical course of the disease so as to emphasize the relevance of hydroxyurea in the management of adult SCA patients. Materials and methods: - The HbF levels of 66 confirmed SCA patients and 31 HbAA controls were estimated using Betke method and HbF percentage was calculated using formula: %HbF percentage = A413 filtrate x 100A413 standard x 20. Result: - A statistical significant difference in the mean of the levels of HbF in patients (5.16±4.04) compared to controls (1.04±0.44) (p = 0.000) was observed. The mean levels of HbF for males (4.71±3.49) compared to that of females (4.99) were statistically similar (p =0.773). It was also observed that the mean HbF level appears to be declining as age advances. SCA patients were classified to three categories viz: HbF <2% (21.2% SCA patients); HbF of 2.1% -10%, (68.2% SCA patients); and HbF of 10.1% -16%, (10.6% SCA patients). Conclusion: - Substantial proportion of our patients actually will require treatment with hydroxylurea to stimulate HbF production especially those with HbF percentage of <2 and some with HbF percentage of 2.1 – 10%. HPFH may be considered rare since only 10. 6% had HbF at the range of 10.1-16%. This study showed that in treating our SCA patients in Nigeria we need to adopt and encourage the use of HbF activating agents like hydroxyurea or any other safe agent that will be found to stimulate HbF production in SCD patients.
Leucocyte Phagocytosis In Children With Urinary Schistosomiasis And Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia
OG Arinola
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: In the participants considered for this study, leucocyte migration, neutrophil candidacidal activity and ability to generate reactive oxygen were determined as percentage migration index (%M. I), candidacidal phagocytic index (%C.I) and bacterial stimulated nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction index (%NBT) respectively. Also, malaria density was counted from thick blood film of glass slide stained with Giemsa stain. The participants were 54 school children having urinary schistosomiasis without malaria parasites (USS-M), 18 children with both urinary schistosomiasis and malaria parasites (USS+M), 46 children with malaria parasites without urinary schistosomiasis (M-USS) and 29 controls. The mean % M.I was least while %NBT index was highest in USS+M subjects but M-USS subjects had least %C.I. Malaria density was higher in M-USS subjects than USS+M subjects. The results of this study showed that low prevalence and reduced severity of malaria parasites in children with urinary schistosomiasis may be due to adequate production of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LMIF) and reactive oxygen species.
Immunological aspects of urinary Schistisomiasis in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria
OG Arinola
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Perinatal mortality in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospitan (UNTH) Enugu at the end of the last millenium
GN Adimora, IO Odetunde
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to determine the Perinatal Mortality Rate at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria at the end of the last millennium. There had been no comprehensive study on this since the inception of the institution in the early seventies. Methods: A five-year retrospective, hospital based study of the births and deaths of infants under one week of age was carried out. This was done using the birth records in the Labour Ward (LW), and the New Born Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the hospital. The UNTH is a referral centre in Enugu covering five states in Eastern Nigeria. However, for the purpose of this study, all babies referred from other hospitals, maternity homes etc (BBA's), were not included. All births and deaths from twenty two weeks gestational age to one week after birth were included in the study. The data were collected by the doctors involved in the study from January 1995 to December 1999 inclusive. Result: 6376 babies were recruited into the study. Out of this number, 5942 were live births, 434 were still births while 411 were early neonatal deaths. 74 babies were dropped from the study (1.16%), due to insufficient information and mutilation of some parts of the records. The total perinatal deaths was 845 giving a perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of 133.94/1000, a high PMR when compared with similar centers in and outside Nigeria.
Power Politics among Abeokuta Elites in the 19th Century
Oluwatoyin Oduntan
African Nebula , 2010,
Effect of Extrusion Cooking of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and Bambara-Nut (Vigna subterranean) Blend on Some Selected Extrudate Parameters  [PDF]
Bolanle Oluwatoyin Oluwole, Abiodun Adekunle Olapade
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26084
Abstract: The effect of thermo-extrusion processing of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and bambara nut (Vigna subterranean) on some selected extrudate parameters of residence time, throughput and moisture content were investigated in this study. Both yam and bambara nut were processed into meals of 750 µm and 500 µm respectively. Extrusion was carried out following a three variable response surface methodology using a Box Behnken design. Blend of yam meal and Bambara nut meal at ratio 80:20 respectively was conditioned into 12.5, 15.0 and 17.5% moisture content (dry basis) and allowed to equilibrate for 4 h. Extrusion was carried out on a single screw extruder at 50, 60 and 70 rpm screw speed and 130oC, 140oC and 150oC barrel temperatures. The study revealed that the extrusion time varied between 13.1 and 29.7 sec, throughput varied from 13.3 to 34.4 kg/h and product moisture ranged from 11.1 to 16.8% dry basis). All investigated extrudate parameters were significantly affected (p< 0.05) by the process variables of screw speed, barrel temperature and feed moisture content, and their interactions. The results were indicative that the second order polynomial was adequate to model the dependence of the extrudate parameters of residence time, throughput and moisture content on extrusion variables of barrel temperature, feed moisture content and screw speed.
Effect of Ceramic Powder Coatings on Low Carbon Steel  [PDF]
Oluwatoyin Adenike Olaseinde, Benjamin Omotayo Adewuyi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.75022
Abstract: Effect of ceramic powder coating on low carbon steel samples was presented. Electrostatic deposition method was used to produce ceramic coatings on low carbon steels. The coatings were fabricated over a range of temperatures (100℃?- 400). Detailed investigation on the corrosion behaviour, the hardness property and electrode potential of the fabricated and uncoated samples are reported. The ceramic materials used are locally available in Ondo-State Nigeria. The coating temperatures affect the rate of corrosion, the hardness property and the electrical resistivity of the coated steel sample. The sample coated at 300 with ceramic powder Y showed the best corrosion resistance in 0.5 M NaCl solution. The highest resistivity occurred in the sample coated at 300℃?with ceramic powder Z. All the samples coated with ceramic powder Y had better corrosion resistance in 0.5 M NaCl than the one coated by sample Z.
Evaluation of the 48 hour, 72 hour and 96 hour readings of tuberculin test for the screening of tuberculosis in cattle
SIB Cadmus, OG Arinola
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, a cattle farm with a history of tuberculosis was examined over a period of three years to determine the usefulness of reading tuberculin tests (single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) and single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test (SICCTT)) at 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs intervals in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. On the onset, SICTT was conducted on a total of 145 cattle, 52 (35.9%) of these were positive at 48 hours, 56 (38.6%) at 72 hours and 65 (44.8%) at 96 hours (X2=1.54, p=0.46). After one year, 171 cattle were screened using SICCTT, 10 (5.8%) animals were positive at 48 hours, 12 (7.0%) at 72 hours and 14 (8.2%) at 96 hours (X2=0.67, p=0.72). During the third test conducted almost one year after the second test, 136 cattle were screened using SICCTT, 13 (9.6%) were positive at 48 hours, 17 (12.5%) at 72 hours and 17 (12.5%) at 96 hours (X2 = 0.68, p=0.71). With the pattern of this result, there may be need to review the policy which gave the 72 hr reading a preference over the 96 hr reading of tuberculin test. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 223-226
Acute phase proteins in pregnant women with urinary schistosomiasis in Ilie Village, Osun state, Nigeria
L Salawu, OG Arinola
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2004,
Abstract: Background: The acute phase proteins (APPs) are plasma proteins whose concentration rise or reduce in reaction to infection, inflammation or trauma (Baumann and Gauldie, 1990). The circulating concentration of these proteins are related to the severity of the underlying condition, thus quantification of their concentrations provide a ready means of giving valuable clinical information and extent of the disease processes (Thompson et. al., 1992). Materials and Methods: Serum levels of three acute phase proteins (transferrin, á2-macroglobulin and haptoglobin) were determined using single radial immuno-diffusion technique in one hundred and eight Nigerian women aged between 15 and 30 years. They were made up of thirty pregnant women with urinary schistosomiasis (P+USS), thirty-six pregnant women without USS (P-USS), eighteen non-pregnant women with USS (NP+USS), and twenty-four healthy non-pregnant women without USS (NP-USS) as controls. Results: The result shows that transferrin was least in P-USS group and highest in NP+USS. The highest mean value of alpha-2 macroglobulin was found in P+USS group and the least in NP+USS. Haptoglobin was significantly reduced in P+USS compared with other groups. Conclusions: The finding of this study suggests an independent effect of USS and pregnancy on serum levels of APPs, therefore APPs could be used to distinguish P+USS from P-USS
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