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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 161 matches for " Olusola Ojurongbe "
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Regulatory T Cells and Parasites
TP. Velavan,Olusola Ojurongbe
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/520940
Abstract: Human host encounters a wide array of parasites; however, the crucial aspect is the failure of the host immune system to clear these parasites despite antigen recognition. In the recent past, a new immunological concept has emerged, which provides a framework to better understand several aspects of host susceptibility to parasitic infection. It is widely believed that parasites are able to modulate the magnitude of effector responses by inducing regulatory T cell (Tregs) population and several studies have investigated whether this cell population plays a role in balancing protective immunity and pathogenesis during parasite infection. This review discusses the several mechanism of Treg-mediated immunosuppression in the human host and focuses on the functional role of Tregs and regulatory gene polymorphisms in infectious diseases.
Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria
Ayodele Adedoja?,Bukola Deborah Tijani?,Ajibola A. Akanbi II?,Taiwo A. Ojurongbe,Oluwaseyi A. Adeyeba?,Olusola Ojurongbe
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003940
Abstract: Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were infected with S. haematobium (RR = 1.3) and hookworm (RR = 1.4) have equal chances of being infected with P. falciparum as children with no worm infection. On the other hand children infected with Hymenolepis spp. (p<0.0001) are more likely to be infected with P. falciparum than Hymenolepis spp. uninfected children (RR = 2.0) Conclusions These findings suggest that multiple parasitic infections are common in school age children in rural communities of Kwara State Nigeria. The Hymenolepis spp. induced increase susceptibility to P. falciparum could have important consequences on
The study of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum in humans infectedwith immunodeficiency virus in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Olarinde Olaniran,Olusola Ojurongbe,Rachel Edoghogho Hassan-Olajokun,Akeem Abiodun Akindele
Microbiology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/mr.2012.e1
Abstract: The study of the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum in humans infected with immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was carried out in Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic infection P.falciparum in HIV positive individuals and correlate it to age Parasitaemia and CD4 T cell count. Out of ninety three (93) HIV positive patients that participated in the study, 53 (58.8%) were females while 40 (41.4%) were males; 48 (52.4%) females and 35 (33.8%) males were positive for asymptomatic P. falciparum given a total number of 83 (86.6%). Twenty non-HIV patients were used as control samples: 9 (45%) were males and 11 (55%) were females. With 3.0 (33.3%) males and 5 (45.45%) females were positive with insignificant value of mean Parasitaemia of 125.0μl of blood. Age group 31-40 had the highest positive rate of 26 (32.2%) and age group 11-20 and above 60 had the least of positive rate. The correlation between age and both CD4 T cell count and Parasitaemia showed levels of significance less than 0.01 (P<0.01) while the correlation between CD4 T cell and count and Parasitaemia showed no significant correlation, having P-value of P>0.05. Comparing the males mean age, CD4 T cell count and Parasitaemia with that of females there was no level of significance P-value being greater than 0.05 (P>0.05) each. In conclusion, the study showed that in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum, almost all the tested samples were positive which could be as a result of depletion in the immune level, hence there is need to always screen for Plasmodium falciparum whether in asymptomatic or symptomatic patients. The CD4 T cells count from the study can not be used for the detection or determination of the presence of malaria infection in HIV positive patients. The best method for malaria identification so far is still the staining method. There should not be discrimination when sampling the patient when investigations on HIV and malaria are to be carried out when both are infected.
Prevalence of Dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolate from pregnant women in Nigeria
Olusola Ojurongbe,Bukola D. Tijani,Adegboyega A. Fawole,Oluwaseyi A. Adeyeba
Infectious Disease Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/idr.2011.e16
Abstract: We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparumisolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who have been exposed to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine. Thick and thin blood films and PCR were used for malaria parasite detection. Blood group and hemoglobin concentration were also determined. Mutations in P. falciparum dhfr were analyzed by sequencing DNA obtained from blood spots on filter paper. Prevalence of P. falciparum in the population (PCR corrected) was 44.1% (79/179) with 66.7% and 33.3% in the second and third trimester, respectively. Primigravide (51.3%) were more infected than multigravide (48.7%) but the difference was not statistically significant. Women in blood group A had the highest P. falciparum malaria infection (30.8%). The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower among those infected with malaria parasite. Also, more women with the malaria parasite (38.4%) had anemia compare to those without (21.4%). The prevalence of the P. falciparum dhfr mutant alleles was 64.1%, 61.5%, 38.5%, and 12.8% for I51, R59, N108 and T108, respectively. None of the samples had the L164 mutation. The combined triple dhfr mutation (51 + 59 + 108) in the population was 17.9% (7 of 39). Also, the prevalence of the triple mutant alleles was not significantly associated to the number of doses of SP taken by the women. These findings highlight the need for a regular assessment of IPTp/SP efficacy, and evaluation of possible alternative drugs.
Assessment of Clinical Diagnosis, Microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests, and Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria
Olusola Ojurongbe,Olunike Olayeni Adegbosin,Sunday Samuel Taiwo,Oyebode Armstrong Terry Alli,Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,Taiwo Adetola Ojurongbe,Oloyede Samuel Bolaji,Oluwaseyi Adegboyega Adeyeba
Malaria Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/308069
Abstract: This study compares the performance of clinical diagnosis and three laboratory diagnostic methods (thick film microscopy (TFM), rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Using clinical criteria, 217 children were recruited into the study out of which 106 (48.8%) were positive by TFM, 84 (38.7%) by RDT, and 125 (57.6%) by PCR. Using a composite reference method generated from the three diagnostic methods, 71 (32.7%) patients were found to be truly infected and 90 (41.5%) truly uninfected, while 56 (25.8%) were misidentified as infected or noninfected. When each of the 3 diagnostic methods was compared with the composite reference, PCR had sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 62.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 56.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.8%; microscopy had sensitivity of 77.2%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 66.9%, and NPV of 81.1%, while RDT had sensitivity of 62.3%, specificity of 87.4%, PPV of 67.7%, and NPV of 84.5%. PCR test performed best among the three methods followed by TFM and RDT in that order. The result of this study shows that clinical diagnosis cannot be relied upon for accurate diagnosis of P. falciparum in endemic areas. 1. Introduction Malaria remains an important public health concern in countries where transmission occurs regularly as well as in areas where transmission has been largely controlled or eliminated. It was estimated that there are 39 million children under 5 years of age who experience 33.7 million malaria episodes and 152,000 childhood deaths from malaria each year in areas suitable for seasonal malaria chemoprevention [1]. Factors such as drug pressure, strain variation, or approaches to blood collection affect the morphological appearance of malaria species which have created diagnostic problems that invariably had a negative effect on malaria control [2]. With the introduction of high cost antimalarial (artemisinin based therapies) the need for accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring malaria elimination/eradication successes becomes a task that must be achieved [3, 4]. In most endemic countries malaria diagnosis depends mainly on clinical evidence and in some cases thick film microscopy (TFM) and rapid diagnostic technique (RDT) may be used for laboratory confirmation. Microscopy remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis and it is less costly with a threshold sensitivity of 5 to 50 parasite/μL (depending on the microscopist expertise) [5]. Microscopy can also characterize the infecting species and also
Rapid detection of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates by FRET and in vivo response to chloroquine among children from Osogbo, Nigeria
Olusola Ojurongbe, Titus O Ogungbamigbe, Adetayo F Fagbenro-Beyioku, Rolf Fendel, Peter G Kremsner, Jürgen FJ Kun
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-41
Abstract: To estimate the prevalence of the most pivotal polymorphisms, including Pfcrt K76T, Pfmdr1 N86Y and Pfmdr1 Y184F mutations, and their contributions to the outcome of CQ treatment, isolates from Osogbo Western Nigeria were tested using the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) method on a real-time PCR instrument.116 children with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria infections were treated with the standard dosage of CQ and followed-up for 28 days. Blood samples were collected on filter paper at enrollment and during follow-up for identification of parasite carrying the chloroquine resistant transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum-multi drug resistance (pfmdr1) gene mutations. Parasitological assessment of response to treatment showed that 62% of the patients were cured and 38% failed the CQ treatment. The presence of single mutant pfcrt (T76) alleles (P = 0.003) and in combination with mutant pfmdr1 Y86 (P = 0.028) was significantly associated with in vivo CQR. No other mutation on its own or in combinations was significantly associated with treatment outcome. Mutant pfcrt was more prevalent in both pre- and post-treatment isolates. No association was observed between age or initial level of parasitaemia and chloroquine treatment outcome.The result established the usefulness and accuracy of real time PCR in pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutation detection and also give further evidence to the reliability of the pfcrt T76 point mutation as a molecular marker for CQ resistance.While there is an active search for new antimalarial drug combinations that could prevent or delay further spread of resistance, there is a need to understand the basis of parasites resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs and explore potentials to use the data in improving the potency and rational for selecting components for effective drug combination. Constant observation of the existing parasite population concerning their genetic makeup determining the resistance to CQ bec
Reliable and rapid characterization of functional FCN2 gene variants reveals diverse geographical patterns
Olusola Ojurongbe, Eman Abou Ouf, Hoang Van Tong, Nguyen L Toan, Le H Song, Paola R Luz, Iara JT Messias-Reason, Dennis Nurjadi, Phillip Zanger, Jürgen FJ Kun, Peter G Kremsner, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BMC Medical Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-37
Abstract: We employed a real-time PCR based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) method to genotype four functional SNPs including -986?G?>?A (#rs3124952), -602?G?>?A (#rs3124953), -4A?>?G (#rs17514136) and +6424?G?>?T (#rs7851696) in the ficolin-2 (FCN2) gene. We characterized the FCN2 variants in individuals representing Brazilian (n?=?176), Nigerian (n?=?180), Vietnamese (n?=?172) and European Caucasian ethnicity (n?=?165).We observed that the genotype distribution of three functional SNP variants (?986?G?>?A, -602?G?>?A and -4A?>?G) differ significantly between the populations investigated (p?<?0.0001). The SNP variants were highly linked to each other and revealed significant population patterns. Also the distribution of haplotypes revealed distinct geographical patterns (p?<?0.0001).The observed distribution of the FCN2 functional SNP variants may likely contribute to altered serum ficolin levels and this may depend on the different disease settings in world populations. To conclude, the use of FRET based real-time PCR especially for FCN2 gene will benefit a larger scientific community who extensively depend on rapid, reliable method for FCN2 genotyping.
New Improved Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method for Bratu-Type Problems  [PDF]
Olusola Ezekiel Abolarin
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.32018
Abstract:

This research paper deals with the boundary and initial value problems for the Bratu-type model by using the New Improved Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method. The New Method does not require discritization, linearization or any restrictive assumption of any form in providing analytical or approximate solutions to linear and nonlinear equation without the integral related with nonlinear term. Theses virtues make it to be reliable and its efficiency is demonstrated with numerical examples.

Fermented Milk Products from Different Milk Types  [PDF]
Olusola Ladokun, Sarah Oni
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513133
Abstract: Yogurt was produced from milk obtained from cow milk, goat milk, soymilk and coconut milk by fermentation using starter cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus.The results obtained showed that the initial pH of the fresh milk samples were slightly acidic: cow milk (6.3), goat milk (6.2), soymilk (6.4) and coconut milk (6.0). The pH results of the various fermented milk at 0 hour of production were goat milk (5.24), cow milk (5.85), soymilk (5.73) and coconut milk (5.98), but at 72 hours, all the milk samples tended to be more acidic due to the fermentation and had lower pH values. All the fresh milk samples had the high moisture content which ranged from 63.34% - 76.90%. Fat content ranged between 9.76% - 15.02%. Crude protein ranged from 7.17% - 32.17% with goat milk having the highest protein level of (32.17%). Ash content had the range of 0.52% - 0.96%. Goat milk had the highest ash content value and coconut milk had the least value. Specific gravities of soymilk, goat milk, cow milk and coconut milk were 1.018, 1.030, 1.016 and 1.01 g/ml respectively. Taste, color, mouth feel and odor were acceptable at 0 hours of production but their value depreciated with storage at room temperature. This study was able to establish the close nutritional gap between cow milk, goat milk, soya and coconut milk yoghurt preparations. The nutritional values obtained from the proximate analysis of the milk samples were comparable. This clearly points to the fact that either of the food can substitute for each other based on the values established from this study.
Stability Analysis of an SIR Epidemic Model with Non-Linear Incidence Rate and Treatment  [PDF]
Olukayode Adebimpe, Kehinde Adekunle Bashiru, Taiwo Adetola Ojurongbe
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2015.33011
Abstract: We consider a SIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and treatment. We show that if the basic reproduction number, R0 is less than unity and the disease free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable. Moreover, we show that if R0 > 1, the endemic equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable. In the end, we give some numerical results to compare our model with existing model and to show the effect of the treatment term on the model.
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