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Spatial and Social Dimensions of Post Conflict Urban Reconstruction Programme in South Western Nigeria. Example from Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Oluseyi O. FABIYI,Olufunmilayo E. THONTTEH,Paul BORISADE
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: Ife and Modakeke are contiguous, but linguistically homogenous communities in the South-Western part of Nigeria but were immersed in recurrent communal conflict since 1845. The age-long communal conflict was interjected by seven major wars including; 1845-1849, 1882-1909, 1946-1949, 1981, 1983, 1997 and 1998-2004. The study examined the nature and challenges of post conflict social and urban reconstructions in the two communities and advanced approaches for peace building in typical post war urban areas. It was observed that most of the physical reconstructions were carried out by the informal private sectors and neighbourhood cooperatives. Naturally cities grow at the peripheries, but the post war expansion in the two communities was more in the core and the transition zone as people move away from perceived volatile areas. Though the immediate cause of the war was addressed, there were no direct initiatives for social reconstruction or peace building in the two communities. The paper suggests that definite social reconstructions must follow communal conflict resolution.
Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties under Maize Cultivation on Oxic Paleustalf in South Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Bola A. Senjobi, Olufunmilayo T. Ande, A. E. Okulaja
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.33019
Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of tillage practices on soil properties under maize cultivation in savanna ecosystem of South Western Nigeria. The tillage systems evaluated were zero, convectional and traditional tillage systems. The results showed that there is a significant difference in soil parameters and crop morphologies at p < 0.05 among the tillage systems. The traditional tillage system resulted to the most favorable soil environment, for crop growth and best performance of crop followed by conventional and no-tillage system in the area are studied respectively. The significant difference in yields adduced to lower bulk density, higher water holding capacity and porosity which increased plant root proliferation and optimal utilization of soil nutrients under tilled methods. Hence tillage methods have the capability to increase production while no-tillage is better under long term production for sustainable land use.

Effect of environmental hygiene and water storage on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Abeokuta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Olufunmilayo Ajoke Idowu
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.61014
Abstract: The effect of availability of cultivated and/or uncultivated land, stagnant water around residential areas and the practice of water storage on the prevalence of malaria infection was assessed among four hundred and sixty-four (464) pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection recorded at one stage of pregnancy or the other among enrolled women in this study was 56.9%. Records of infection observed among women living in areas where there were stagnant water and cultivated or uncultivated land were not statistically different from those without such environmental factors in their residence (P > 0.05). The practice of water storage though still a common practice among women in Abeokuta (98.9%) was also not found to significantly influence the malaria status of the pregnant women; infection was higher among women that did not store water in their homes than those that claim to store. Storing of water was mainly in containers with cover implying that the women have a good understanding of the necessary precaution for storing water in homes; there was also no significant difference between mode of water storage and parasitaemia. The physico-chemical composition of the tap water stored may have prevented the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in them. We conclude that water storage in homes may not be strong risk behaviour for malaria transmission especially in areas where appropriate measures are employed for water storage in homes.
Physicochemical properties, vitamins, antioxidant activities and amino acid composition of ginger spiced maize snack ‘kokoro’ enriched with soy flour (a Nigeria based snack)  [PDF]
Fasasi Olufunmilayo Sade, Alokun Omotayo Aderonke
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B014
Abstract:

Blends of white maize, ginger powder (white and yellow) and soy flour were prepared at the following ratio of white maize 97%: yellow ginger 3% (WM /YG); white maize 97%: white ginger 3% (WM/WG); white maize 87%: soy bean 10%: yellow ginger 3% (WM/S/YG); white maize 87%: soy bean 10%: white ginger 3% (WM/S/WG), white maize 90%: soybean 10% (WM/S), white maize 100% (WM) control. As result revealed protein content, energy value, ash contents of ginger spiced ‘kokoro’ improved significantly with the addition of ginger spice and or soy flour compared with the control. The mineral composition of ginger spiced ‘kokoro’, increased significantly at p < 0.05 especially with WM/S. Addition of ginger and or soy improves the vitamin A and C content of ginger spiced ‘kokoro’, WM/S/YG had the highest vitamin A. while WM/S/WG had the highest Vitamin C content as compared with the control (WM). Result revealed that WM/S/YG displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging actives. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement was observed in the amino acid content of the ginger spiced ‘kokoro’. The addition of ginger powder and or soy flour decreases the load at break (N), compressed Extension at Break (mm), and the energy at break (J) of the ginger spiced ‘kokoro’.

Comparison of Soil Quality Improvement under Different Fallow Types on Dystric Nitosols Derived from Sand Stone in South Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Olufunmilayo T. Ande, Bola A. Senjobi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.511115
Abstract: The project was carried out to determine the effects of different fallow types on soil derived from sand stone of low nutrient status in south western Nigeria. The different fallow types include Leu-caena, elephant grass, guinea grass and secondary forest. Cultivated farm land was used to serve as control for comparison of soil quality improvement. Soil samples were collected in four replicates on each land cover type and analyzed for major physical and chemical parameters. The results show little fertility improvement for base saturation with 1.42 cmol/kg in Leucaena, 1.99 cmol/kg in secondary forest, 1.60 cmol/kg in guinea grass and in Elephant grass. Leucaena resulted to better soil quality than secondary forest especially in surface properties though not significantly different. Elephant grass and guinea grass also resulted to better Nitrogen content. Nitrogen content recorded in Leucaena was high with 0.20% - 0.25%. Guinea grass and elephant grass resulted to better soil quality in terms of nitrogen content [0.20% - 0.25%] than cultivated and secondary forest [0.07% - 0.11%] due to their yearly incorporation in to the soil by ploughing. The values of phosphorus were higher in Leucaena though not significant [6.46 mg/kg]. Low soil properties improvement is attributed to nutrient exploitation in Leucaena and secondary forest after a long period of fallow [20 years] while, nitrogen enrichment in the grasses is attributed to yearly tillage. Over all low to medium soil variability indicates that the soils could be managed as a unit for crop production.
Pushing the envelope to reduce sedation in critically ill patients
Olufunmilayo Ogundele, Sachin Yende
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9339
Abstract: Edited by: Sachin Yende. University of Pittsburgh Department of Critical Care MedicineStrom T, Martinussen T, Toft P: A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomized trial. Lancet 2010, 375:475-480 [1].Standard treatment of critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation is continuous sedation. Daily interruption of sedation has a beneficial effect, and in the general intensive care unit of Odense University Hospital, Denmark, standard practice is a protocol of no sedation. We aimed to establish whether duration of mechanical ventilation could be reduced with a protocol of no sedation versus daily interruption of sedation.Of 428 patients assessed for eligibility, we enrolled 140 critically ill adult patients who were undergoing mechanical ventilation and were expected to need ventilation for more than 24 h. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio (unblinded) to receive: no sedation (n = 70 patients); or sedation (20 mg/mL propofol for 48 h, 1 mg/mL midazolam thereafter) with daily interruption until awake (n = 70, control group). Both groups were treated with bolus doses of morphine (2.5 or 5 mg). The primary outcome was the number of days without mechanical ventilation in a 28-day period, and we also recorded the length of stay in the intensive care unit (from admission to 28 days) and in hospital (from admission to 90 days). Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00466492.27 patients died or were successfully extubated within 48 h, and, as per our study design, were excluded from the study and statistical analysis. Patients receiving no sedation had significantly more days without ventilation (n = 55; mean 13.8 days, SD 11.0) than did those receiving interrupted sedation (n = 58; mean 9.6 days, SD 10.0; mean difference 4.2 days, 95% CI 0.3-8.1; p = 0.0191). No sedation was also associated with a shorter stay in the intensive care unit (HR
Proximate, Antinutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Processed Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
Fasasi Olufunmilayo Sade
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: > The effect of germination, roasting and fermentation on the proximate composition, antinutritional factors and functional properties of pearl millet was investigated. Pearl millet seeds were subjected to the different processing methods; samples were dried and milled into fine flours, respectively. Standard methods were used to evaluate the flours for proximate, minerals, antinutritional factors and functional properties. The visco-elastic property was determined using the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Germination and fermentation increased the crude protein content of pearl millet seed flour. The carbohydrate content decreased during fermentation, while germination and roasting significantly (p<0.05) increased the carbohydrate level resulting in significant increase in the energy density of the flour. Processing had varied effects on the mineral composition of the flours, it also reduced the antinutritional factors Processing significantly (p<0.05) increased the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, least gelation concentration and bulk density of the flours, hence flours could be used in food systems where the above qualities are desirable.
The Antimicrobial Effects of the Cream of Tartar (‘KUKA`) of Baobab Fruit, on Fermented Milk (‘NONO`)
Bankole, M. Olufunmilayo
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The preservative activities of ‘kuka`, the cream of tartar of Baobab fruit, a local spice was studied, with respect to its effects on the total viable bacterial count especially the coliforms and staphylococcal organisms in ‘nono` a product of fermented milk. Increasing the concentration of ‘kuka` from 1% to 50% resulted in an inhibition of the bacteria present in ‘nono`. The findings are also discussed in terms of the nutritional value of ‘nono`.
Association between Intestinal Helminthiasis and Serum Ferritin Levels Among School Children  [PDF]
Olufunmilayo Victoria Adebara, Samuel Kolade Ernest, Isaac Ayodele Ojuawo
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2011.12004
Abstract: Background: Significant iron deficiency anaemia is a major concern in children with helminthiasis, because it may eventually contribute to the growing health challenges of severe anaemia This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to determine the association between serum ferritin levels and intestinal helminthiasis among school children. Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect the study population data. Stool specimens were obtained and examined on the same day using the sedimentation method for identification of the parasite. Blood samples were also obtained for full blood count and serum ferritin measurement. Results: A total of 246 school children were studied with a response rate of 82%. The prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis was 29.7%. The different helminthes identified included Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis. Of the population studied, 36.2% were anaemic, 15.9% had microcytosis, and 47.6% had hypochromia. The prevalence of ex-hausted iron stores was 3.7%. Serum ferritin levels were significantly lower in children with intestinal helminthiasis compared with controls. Conclusions: The findings in this study demonstrate an inverse re-lationship between intestinal helminthiasis and serum ferritin levels and this is more marked in pupils with hookworm infections. The control of intestinal hel-minthiasis and prevention of iron deficiency anaemia should be given high priority in the implementation of the school health programme.
Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of some metal(II) amino acids’ complexes  [PDF]
Temitayo Olufunmilayo Aiyelabola, Isaac Ayoola Ojo, Adeleke Clement Adebajo, Grace Olufunmilayo Ogunlusi, Olayinka Oyetunji, Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi, Adebowale Olusoji Adeoye
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.23034
Abstract: Metal(II) coordination compounds of glycine and ph-enylalanine were synthesized and characterized using infrared and electronic spectroscopic, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudo-monas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal (II) ions and ligands in molar ratio M:L (1:3) [where M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd; L= glycine; phenylalanine] resulted in the formation of five-coordinate square pyramidal dinuclear geometry for both copper complexes and six-coordinate octa-hedral geometry for the other complexes. The spectroscopic and magnetic moment data suggested that the ligands coordinated via both their amino and carboxylate ion moieties. The complexes demonstrated better activities against one or more of the tested microbes than acriflavine, the standard drug used.
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