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Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2011,
Abstract: Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.
Evaluation of Performances of Intermodal Import-Export Freight Transport System in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Kenea Amentae, Girma Gebresenbet
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81007
Abstract: Freight transport system that minimizes costs, increase conveniences, and environmentally safe has become the agenda worldwide since long before. This study was made with the main objective of assessing intermodal termed as “multimodal” freight transport service in Ethiopia. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire from randomly selected customers and multimodal freight transport section employees of Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Service Enterprise. The study was made in two stages using customers: first, they were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with the multimodal freight transport system; second, to evaluate their comparative satisfaction with the segmented/“uni-modal” freight transport system against five major freight transport performance indicators. Customers were also asked to identify and rank top ten problems of freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using SPSS and excel sheets with descriptive statistics and the results were depicted using charts and tables. The study indicated that majority of customers were either dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with many of the performance indicators. The employees evaluated their organization as well performing relatively on more performance indicators. Both customers and employees evaluated the documentation performances as satisfying but cost and convenience as dissatisfying performances. Customers identified repetitive custom checking and waste of time in custom inspections process as the most severe problem in freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. The implementation of intermodal freight transport system to bring better change in import-export freight transport logistics of Ethiopia was in bitter challenge for customers due to a number of problems, except documentation performance that showed betterment.
Characterizing Milk Supply and Marketing Chains and Losses in Wolmera and Ejere Districts of Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Kenea Amentae, Girma Gebresenbet, David Ljungberg
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.86084
Abstract: This study was made with the purposes of characterizing milk supply and marketing chains, post-production losses of milk, and evaluating the potential of supply chain management approach to reduce milk losses in Ethiopia. Primary data were collected by semi-structured survey questionnaire and interview of key informants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel sheets. Mapping, characterizations, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected data. Both quantitative and qualitative-narrative methods were used in analysis. The finding revealed that farmers, cooperatives/unions, traders, and catering institutions were the major chain actors in milk chain in the study area. With 73% of milk sold by farmers passing through cooperatives/unions to the next chain actors, cooperatives/unions were the focal firms in this supply chain. Production was characterized by smallholders with few numbers of cows and low productivity of milk per cow per day. Cow breed and lack of access to credit were identified as critical resource and the most constraint that hinder production improvement. Marketing relationships among the chain actors were characterized as lacking long-term market orientation and were mostly on the spot and transaction based. The assessment on the enabling environment indicated further need of support from governmental and non-governmental stakeholders to build the capacity of chain actors, particularly the farmers. The study indicated existence of significant amount of milk losses in the milk chain. With 39% of the total losses happening at cooperatives/ union stage, cooperatives/unions were identified as loss hotspot point in the chain. Poor milk handling practice at the collection points, lack of immediate acceptors, milk carrying tools used, means of transport used, and ineffective communication with other partner in the chain were identified in order of severity as important problems causing milk losses in the study area. Based on the study results and review of others’ work in similar contexts, this study argued for SCM to be part of solution in improving this dairy chain. The study showed cases where effectively implemented SCM approach converted dairy chains from chains characterized by dismantled, high conflicts of interests among the chain actors, and high losses of food in the chain to chains with mutual interest trying to maximize the profit to the whole chain actors. Integrated and collective actions by all chain actors aiming at reducing costs, improving quality, and minimizing food losses in the
Satisfaction with outpatient health services at Jimma Hospital, South West Ethiopia
Lemessa Oljira, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2001,
Abstract: Background: The opinions of users about the health care services and the degree of their satisfaction may indicate the efficiency of the services. Objective: To assess consumer satisfaction of outpatient health care services. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Jimma hospital from November to February 1999. Data were collected by health-workers using pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 385 outpatients, females, were interviewed at exit of hospital. The majority, 140 (36.4%) of the users were within the age group of 30-39 years. About 56% of the females visited the hospital for children's health care while 87.2% of the males visited for own health care. Overall, 57.1% of interviewee believed that the service they received was either good or very good. Satisfaction with health care was found to have a direct relationship with increase in age but has an inverse relation with increase in educational level of respondents. It has a significant association with length of waiting and consultation time, type of investigations performed and securing prescribed medications from hospital pharmacy (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, efficient health service management to improve drug supply and quality of service are recommended. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2001, 15(3): 179-184)
Patterns of sexual risk behavior among undergraduate university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Tariku Dingeta, Lemessa Oljira, Nega Assefa
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and sexual risk behavior characteristics among 1,286 undergraduate students at Haramaya University, Ethiopia from March to April, 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: About 355 (28%; 95% CI 25.5-30.5) students reported to have had sexual intercourse at least once. More proportion of male students ever had sex compared to females (OR 4.8; 95% CI 3.4-6.8, p<0.001). One fifth (22.8%) of these students had their sexual debut after they joined university. About six percent of students with sexual experience reported having had intercourse with same-sex partners. Half of the males with sexual experience had intercourse with a commercial sex worker. About 60% of students reported to have used a condom rarely. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is a high level of sexual risk behavior among the study population. Significant proportion of students were sexually active, the majority started sexual intercourse before they joined university. We recommend awareness campaigns and interventions on sexual and reproductive health issues for high school and university students in Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:33
Assessment of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge level among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia
Lemessa Oljira,Yemane Berhane,Alemayehu Worku
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2013, DOI: 10.7448/ias.16.1.17349
Abstract: Introduction: In Ethiopia, more adolescents are in school today than ever before; however, there are no studies that have assessed their comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Thus, this study tried to assess the level of this knowledge and the factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator-guided self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were students attending regular school in 14 high schools located in 14 different districts in eastern Ethiopia. The proportion of in-school adolescents with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge was computed and compared by sex. The factors that were associated with the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Only about one in four, 677 (24.5%), in-school adolescents have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. The knowledge was better among in-school adolescents from families with a relatively middle or high wealth index (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.39 [1.03–1.87] and 1.75 [1.24–2.48], respectively), who got HIV/AIDS information mainly from friends or mass media (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.63 [1.17–2.27] and 1.55 [1.14–2.11], respectively) and who received education on HIV/AIDS and sexual matters at school (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.59 [1.22–2.08]). The females were less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to males (adjusted OR and [95% CI]=0.60 [0.49–0.75]). Conclusions: In general, only about a quarter of in-school adolescents had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Although the female adolescents are highly vulnerable to HIV infection and its effects, they were by far less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. HIV/AIDS information, education and communication activities need to be intensified in high schools.
Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
S. Takele Kenea,G. Mengistu Tsidu,T. Blumenstock,F. Hase
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/amt-6-495-2013
Abstract: Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR) profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and 0.9 to 9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.
Retrieval and validation of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR spectrometer at equatorial station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
S. Takele Kenea,G. Mengistu Tsidu,T. Blumenstock,F. Hase
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-5-6763-2012
Abstract: Since May 2009 high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra are recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude a.s.l.), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels analysis of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information always comes from the measurement. We obtained 2.1 degrees of freedom on average for signals in the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. We have compared the FTIR retrieval of ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR) profiles and column amounts with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument. The mean relative differences are generally found below +15% in the altitude range of 27 to 36 km for comparison of VMR profiles made between MLS and MIPAS, whereas comparison with TES has shown below 9.4% relative difference. Furthermore, the mean relative difference is positive above 31 km, suggesting positive bias in the FTIR measurement of O3 VMR with respect to MLS, MIPAS and TES. The overall comparisons of column amounts of satellite measurements with the ground-based FTIR instruments show better agreement exhibiting mean relative differences of ground-based FTIR with respect to MLS and GOME-2 within +0.4% to +4.0% and corresponding standard deviations of 2.2 to 4.3% whereas, in the case of OMI, TES, AIRS, the mean relative differences are from 0.38 to 6.8%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over the 2-yr period.
Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
S. Takele Kenea, G. Mengistu Tsidu, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, T. von Clarmann,G. P. Stiller
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2013,
Abstract: Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR) profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and 0.9 to 9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.
Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model
Tina-Marie Assi, Shawn T Brown, Ali Djibo, Bryan A Norman, Jayant Rajgopal, Joel S Welling, Sheng-I Chen, Rachel R Bailey, Souleymane Kone, Hailu Kenea, Diana L Connor, Angela R Wateska, Anirban Jana, Stephen R Wisniewski, Willem G Van Panhuis, Donald S Burke, Bruce Y Lee
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-425
Abstract: We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers) in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes.Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164%) to means of 59% (range: 4-164%), 62% (range: 4-175%), and 67% (range: 5-192%), respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300%) to means of 161% (range: 82-322%), 175% (range: 78-344%), and 198% (range: 88-402%), respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC). The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%). Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively.The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per vaccinated child.Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentations, i.e. number of doses per vial. Single-dose vials reduce contamination risk, inaccurate dosing, and vaccine wastage, but increase space requirements, medical waste volume and costs per dose[1-4]. Countries changing vaccine vial size presentations in their World Health Organization (WHO) Expande
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