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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11361 matches for " Olivier Vincent "
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Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs
Vincent Bessonneau,Olivier Thomas
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9030868
Abstract: This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K 2Cr 2O 7 and H 2SO 4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.
Acoustic characterization of Hofstadter butterfly with resonant scatterers
Olivier Richoux,Vincent Pagneux
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2002-00156-5
Abstract: We are interested in the experimental characterization of the Hofstadter butterfly by means of acoustical waves. The transmission of an acoustic pulse through an array of 60 variable and resonant scatterers periodically distribued along a waveguide is studied. An arbitrary scattering arrangement is realized by using the variable length of each resonator cavity. For a periodic modulation, the structures of forbidden bands of the transmission reproduce the Hofstadter butterfly. We compare experimental, analytical, and computational realizations of the Hofstadter butterfly and we show the influence of the resonances of the scatterers on the structure of the butterfly.
A Kummer construction for gravitational instantons
Olivier Biquard,Vincent Minerbe
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-011-1366-y
Abstract: We give a simple and uniform construction of essentially all known deformation classes of gravitational instantons with ALF, ALG or ALH asymptotics and nonzero injectivity radius. We also construct new ALH Ricci flat metrics asymptotic to the product of a real line with a flat 3-manifold.
Characteristic polyhedra of singularities without completion
Vincent Cossart,Olivier Piltant
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Let $(R,M,k)$ be a regular local G-ring with regular system of parameters $(u_1, \ldots ,u_d,y)$. We prove that the Hironaka characteristic polyhedron $\Delta (f;u_1, \ldots ,u_d)$, $f \not \in (u_1, \ldots ,u_d)$ of a hypersurface singularity $X={\rm Spec}R/(f)$ can be computed in some system of coordinates belonging to $R$. No assumption on the residue characteristic is required.
Resolution of Singularities of Arithmetical Threefolds II
Vincent Cossart,Olivier Piltant
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We prove Grothendieck's Conjecture on Resolution of Singulari-ties for quasi-excellent schemes X of dimension three and of arbitrary characteristic. This applies in particular to X = SpecA, A a reduced complete Noetherian local ring of dimension three and to algebraic or arithmetical varieties of dimension three. Similarly, if F is a number field, a complete discretely valued field or more generally the quotient field of any excellent Dedekind domain O, any regular projective sur-face X/F has a proper and flat model X over O which is everywhere regular.
Qualitative Concurrent Stochastic Games with Imperfect Information
Vincent Gripon,Olivier Serre
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: We study a model of games that combines concurrency, imperfect information and stochastic aspects. Those are finite states games in which, at each round, the two players choose, simultaneously and independently, an action. Then a successor state is chosen accordingly to some fixed probability distribution depending on the previous state and on the pair of actions chosen by the players. Imperfect information is modeled as follows: both players have an equivalence relation over states and, instead of observing the exact state, they only know to which equivalence class it belongs. Therefore, if two partial plays are indistinguishable by some player, he should behave the same in both of them. We consider reachability (does the play eventually visit a final state?) and B\"uchi objective (does the play visit infinitely often a final state?). Our main contribution is to prove that the following problem is complete for 2-ExpTime: decide whether the first player has a strategy that ensures her to almost-surely win against any possible strategy of her oponent. We also characterise those strategies needed by the first player to almost-surely win.
Asymmetric acoustic propagation of wave packets via the self-demodulation effect
Thibaut Devaux,Vincent Tournat,Olivier Richoux,Vincent Pagneux
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.234301
Abstract: This article presents the experimental characterization of nonreciprocal elastic wave transmission in a single-mode elastic waveguide. This asymmetric system is obtained by coupling a selection layer with a conversion layer: the selection component is provided by a phononic crystal, while the conversion is achieved by a nonlinear self-demodulation effect in a 3D unconsolidated granular medium. A quantitative experimental study of this acoustic rectifier indicates a high rectifying ratio, up to $10^6$, with wide band (10 kHz) and an audible effect. Moreover, this system allows for wave-packet rectification and extends the future applications of asymmetric systems.
Spontaneous Firings of Carnivorous Aquatic Utricularia Traps: Temporal Patterns and Mechanical Oscillations
Olivier Vincent, Ivan Roditchev, Philippe Marmottant
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020205
Abstract: Aquatic species of Utricularia are carnivorous plants living in environments poor in nutrients. Their trapping mechanism has fascinated generations of scientists and is still debated today. It was reported recently that Utricularia traps can fire spontaneously. We show here that these spontaneous firings follow an unexpected diversity of temporal patterns, from “metronomic” traps which fire at fixed time intervals to “random” patterns, displaying more scattered firing times. Some “bursting” traps even combine both aspects, with groups of fast regular firings separated by a variable amount of time. We propose a physical model to understand these very particular behaviors, showing that a trap of Utricularia accomplishes mechanical oscillations, based on continuous pumping and sudden opening of the trap door (buckling). We isolate the key parameters governing these oscillations and discuss the effect of their fluctuations.
Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?
Vincent Bessonneau,Michel Clément,Olivier Thomas
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7083038
Abstract: Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m 3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed.
Behaviour of Roofing Materials Facing to Micro-Organisms  [PDF]
Marielle Fassier, Céline Faugeron, Vincent Gloaguen, Céline Ducroquetz, Olivier Dupont
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2013.31002
Abstract:

An accelerated water-streaming test was used to evaluate several roofing materials regarding their behavior to colonization by algae, by closely reproducing the phenomenon of natural biological soiling. A set of roofing materials with defined physical and chemical characteristics was thus investigated against the colonization by algae. Porosity, roughness and chemical composition showed to be factors of influence in the establishment of those micro-organisms.

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