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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6756 matches for " Olivier Schwartz "
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HIV-1 Virological Synapse: Live Imaging of Transmission
Jerome Feldmann,Olivier Schwartz
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2081666
Abstract: A relatively new aspect of HIV-1 biology is the ability of the virus to infect cells by direct cellular contacts across a specialized structure, the virological synapse. This process was recently described through live cell imaging. Together with the accumulated knowledge on cellular and molecular structures involved in cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1, the visualization of the virological synapse in video-microscopy has brought exciting new hypotheses on its underlying mechanisms. This review will recapitulate current knowledge with a particular emphasis on the questions live microscopy has raised.
A New Role for the HTLV-1 p8 Protein: Increasing Intercellular Conduits and Viral Cell-to-Cell Transmission
Marine Malbec,Ferdinand Roesch,Olivier Schwartz
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3030254
Abstract: Retroviruses like HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can be transmitted efficiently by direct contact between infected and target cells. For HIV-1, various modes of cell-to-cell transfer have been reported, including virological synapses, polysynapses, filopodial bridges, and nanotube-like structures. So far, only synapses and biofilms have been described for HTLV-1 transmission. Recently, Van Prooyen et al. [1] identified an additional mode of HTLV-1 transmission?through cellular conduits induced by the viral accessory protein p8.
Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence in the monocyte-macrophage lineage
Valentin Le Douce, Georges Herbein, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
Retrovirology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-32
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency 1 (HIV-1), identified in 1983 [1], remains a global health threat responsible for a world-wide pandemic. Several advances have been made in curing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996. AIDS pandemic has stabilized on a global scale in 2008 with an estimated 33 million people infected worldwide (data from UN, 2008). Even if an effective AIDS vaccine is still lacking, the introduction of HAART greatly extended survival. This therapy can reduce plasma virus levels below detection limits (≤ 50 copies/ml). It induces a biphasic decline of HIV-1 RNA with a rapid decline of infected CD4+ T cells (half life 0.5 day) followed by a decline originating from infected tissue macrophages (half life 2 weeks) [2]. However, with very sensitive methods [3,4], a residual viremia is still detected in patients on HAART. Moreover, HIV RNA returns to a measurable plasma level in less than two weeks when HAART is interrupted [5,6]. These observations suggest that even long term suppression of HIV-1 replication by HAART cannot totally eliminate HIV-1, the virus persists in cellular reservoirs because of viral latency, cryptic ongoing replication or poor drug penetration [7-9]. In fact, the persistence of infection is not so surprising since, from an evolutionary point of view, this is the best form of adaptation of viruses to the host environment. There are essentially two theories of persistent infection: latency and ongoing replication. Latency is best described as a lack of proviral gene expression. On the other hand, ongoing replication requires continuous viral expression without cytopathic effects. It is important to distinguish between the two possibilities since they call for very different therapeutic interventions. The theory of ongoing replication suggests that drug resistance to treatment may develop. In this case treatment intensification and the design of new anti HI
The Rhetoric of Begin: Leadership in Changing Times  [PDF]
David Schwartz
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.53008
A precise examination of Menachem Begin’s speeches and history over the years reveals that Begin’s rhetoric constituted a political instrument that he knew to change according to the circumstances. Begin’s rhetoric was controversial, as he went from the leader of a terrorist organization, was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize, and was the Prime Minister who signed the peace treaty with Egypt. This quality study claims that begin’s rhetoric is integral part of his personality and of his leadership. The assumption is that like a typical politician his leadership changed according the winds of times. His charisma and transformational leadership made him a great leader. His rhetoric constituted just instrument for justification his political actions. Begin was revealed to be pragmatic, in contrast to the militant images that his political rivals attempted to affix to him.
The Social Doctrine of Zeev Jabotinsky, from the Fathers of Zionism  [PDF]
David Schwartz
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.64034
Abstract: Zeev Jabotinsky, in contrast to the conservative economic approach that characterizes the right parties around the world, in essence supports a social democratic approach in the economic dimension, at least in the stage of the establishment of the Jewish state that will be established. Jabotinsky considered the topic of the need to protect the person’s individualism to be very important, since “every individual is a king” and he also supports the idea of the welfare state. The state has to give the individuals there basic needs, but the new Jew has to pay contribution to building the Hebrew new nation and new society. His approach was mixed of liberalism and nationalism, and he adopted the universal attitude of the famous Russian writer Tolstoy to the human suffer, and admired Garibaldi the leader that united Italy. After the second world war and the rise of the Fascists dictatorship of Germany and the communist revolution, Jabotinsky emphasized his belief in the values of liberalism like the American approach of Abram Linkolen that gave freedom to the slaves. Jabotinsky died in New York in the United States, the land of freedom and liberalism as refugee, far away from Russian culture that he was born to.
Inhibition of mTORC1 Enhances the Translation of Chikungunya Proteins via the Activation of the MnK/eIF4E Pathway
Pierre-Emmanuel Joubert?,Kenneth Stapleford?,Florence Guivel-Benhassine?,Marco Vignuzzi?,Olivier Schwartz,Matthew L. Albert
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005091
Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the causative agent of a major epidemic spanning five continents, is a positive stranded mRNA virus that replicates using the cell’s cap-dependent translation machinery. Despite viral infection inhibiting mTOR, a metabolic sensor controls cap-dependent translation, viral proteins are efficiently translated. Rapalog treatment, silencing of mtor or raptor genes, but not rictor, further enhanced CHIKV infection in culture cells. Using biochemical assays and real time imaging, we demonstrate that this effect is independent of autophagy or type I interferon production. Providing in vivo evidence for the relevance of our findings, mice treated with mTORC1 inhibitors exhibited increased lethality and showed a higher sensitivity to CHIKV. A systematic evaluation of the viral life cycle indicated that inhibition of mTORC1 has a specific positive effect on viral proteins, enhancing viral replication by increasing the translation of both structural and nonstructural proteins. Molecular analysis defined a role for phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase (MnKs) activation, leading to the hyper-phosphorylation of eIF4E. Finally, we demonstrated that in the context of CHIKV inhibition of mTORC1, viral replication is prioritized over host translation via a similar mechanism. Our study reveals an unexpected bypass pathway by which CHIKV protein translation overcomes viral induced mTORC1 inhibition.
Theoretical and Practical Notes on Vending Strategies  [PDF]
Gustav Cepciansky, Ladislav Schwartz
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.31001
Abstract: The paper deals with an application of theory of mass servicing on some cases in vending strategies. The aim of the paper is to show how the theory which is apparently applicable for scientific problems can also be utilised in practical use. First, the necessary theoretical background will have been done and then some examples applied on vending practises will be given.
Tariffication Strategies and Charging Effectivity  [PDF]
Gustav Cepciansky, Ladislav Schwartz
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.33041
Abstract: The effort of all service providers is to maximize their revenues. The ideal case would be, when a service provider obtained payment for entire services provided. But it is not always possible. Some services may not be paid for. Distribution companies (electricity power, gas, and water), transport companies (airlines, railways, buses, and taxis), telecommunication companies and companies established by the government (e.g. cash of road tax) represent such type of enterprises. Their clients pay for the volume of drawn media, distance of transmission, service duration, amount of transmitted information or travelled distance. Most services are charged fully, but certain services are only charged partly or not at all. An appropriate theory concerning the service provision effectivity and charging policy will be done on examples from telecommunication business and from road tax cashing.
Concatenated Processes in Commercial Business and in Global Economy  [PDF]
Gustav Cepciansky, Ladislav Schwartz
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.44037
Abstract: The paper deals with an application of theory stochastic processes on business practices and with consequences which the concatenated economic co-operation may have on the future economic growth. The aim of the paper is also to draw attention how the theory which is apparently applicable for solution of scientific problems can also be utilised in practical commercial and economic use. First, the necessary theoretical background will have been done and then some application examples will be given.
Excessive participation in on-line internet action games by two American teenagers: Case report, description of extent of overuse, and adverse consequences  [PDF]
Richard H. Schwartz
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33035

In the past 15 years, there have been more than 40 articles in the medical literature about excessive participation in on-line internet action games by adolescents and young adults. The following case reports provide detailed information on two boys, ages 16 and 20 years respectively, who are compulsive and enthusiastic internet gamers, to the exclusion of family communication, school activities, academic performance, participation in sports and dating. They have not mastered any of the usual goals of adolescent development.

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