Abstract:
Cette contribution rend compte d’une recherche-action orientée vers la construction d’un système de pilotage visant à concilier management stratégique et management opérationnel. Impulsée par la nécessité d’objectiver les processus et résultats à tous les niveaux de l’organisation, cette démarche découle à la fois d’effets de contexte (influence normative de la Loi Organique des Lois de Finances) et d’une volonté interne au Service Départemental d’Incendie et de Secours des Bouches-du-Rh ne (SDIS 13). Afin de mener à bien la production des tableaux de bord multidimensionnels nécessaires à cette objectivation, le SDIS 13 s’est rapproché de l’Institut de Management Public et de Gouvernance Territoriale (IMPGT). L’expertise méthodologique ainsi apportée, alliée à un mode de production participatif, permet de poser les conditions de l’innovation par la recherche et d’un meilleur partage, à terme, des expériences et des connaissances.

Abstract:
heavy flavour quarks in ep collisions are produced mostly from pair-production through a fusion of a virtual photon and a gluon from the proton. therefore, the production cross sections provide information on the gluon distribution in the proton. the presence of a hard scale from the heavy quark mass, in principle, ensures that the cross sections are calculable through pqcd. measurements in ep collisions, however, show that the calculations reasonably agree with the data in general, but underestimate the cross sections in some regions of phase space.

Abstract:
Copper ions in the active sites of several proteins/enzymes interact with phenols and quinones, and this interaction is associated to the reactivity of the enzymes. In this study the speciation of the with iminodiacetic phenolate/hydroquinonate ligands has been examined by pH-potentiometry. The results reveal that the iminodiacetic phenol ligand forms mononuclear complexes with at acidic and alkaline pHs, and a binuclear -bridged complex at pH range from 7 to 8.5. The binucleating hydroquinone ligand forms only 2？:？1 metal to ligand complexes in solution. The pK values of the protonation of the phenolate oxygen of the two ligands are reduced about 2 units after complexation with the metal ion and are close to the pK values for the copper-interacting tyrosine phenol oxygen in copper enzymes. 1. Introduction Copper ions in the active sites of proteins/enzymes mediate a broad scope of chemical processes including electron transfer, dioxygen uptake, storage, and transport and catalytic conversions [1]. When surveying the known copper enzymes and their functions, it is striking that their reactivity is typically linked to dioxygen or compounds directly synthesized from O2-like phenols and quinones [2–7]. For example, copper proteins are involved in reversible dioxygen binding in hemocyanin [8], two-electron reduction to peroxide coupled to oxidation of substrates in amine and galactose oxidases [9], biogenesis of novel metalloenzyme cofactors (e.g., topaquinone in amine oxidases) [10], activation of hydroxylation in tyrosinase [11], and proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase [12]. Detailed study of the solid and solution chemistry of Cu2+ phenolate/hydroquinonate complexes is essential for better understanding of the coordination of the metal ion in the enzymes and the mechanisms of the enzymatic catalysis. Derivatives of phenol or hydroquinone containing nitrogen [13–22] as donor atoms are the vast majority of the ligands used to model the active site of the copper enzymes. Despite the importance of phenolate/hydroquinonate chelating ligands as models of copper enzymes, ligands with other than nitrogen donor atoms such as aminocarboxylate derivatives of phenols, have been much less studied. These ligands exhibit very attractive features for modelling metal enzymes, such as the highly solubility in aqueous solution, forming stable complexes with metal ions and the similarity of the donor groups to those in biological systems. In addition, the one-electron oxidized p-semiquinone radical of the ligand 2,5-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl] hydroquinone (

Abstract:
A Lie-Poisson bracket is presented for a five-field gyrofluid model, thereby showing the model to be Hamiltonian. The model includes the effects of magnetic field curvature and describes the evolution of the electron and ion gyro-center densities, the parallel component of the ion and electron velocities, and the ion temperature. The quasineutrality property and Ampere's law determine respectively the electrostatic potential and magnetic flux. The Casimir invariants are presented, and shown to be associated to five Lagrangian invariants advected by distinct velocity fields. A linear, local study of the model is conducted both with and without Landau and diamagnetic resonant damping terms. Stability criteria and dispersion relations for the electrostatic and the electromagnetic cases are derived and compared with their analogs for fluid and kinetic models.

It briefly recalls the theory of Bell’s inequality and some experimental
measures. Then measurements are processed on one hand according to a property
of the wave function, on the other hand according to the sum definition. The
results of such processed measures are apparently not the same, so Bell’s
inequality would not be violated. It is a use of the wave function which
implies the violation of the inequality, as it can be seen on the last
flowcharts.

Abstract:
The traditional thermodynamic theory explains
the reversible phenomena quite well, except that reversible phenomena are rare
or even impossible in practice. Here the purpose is to propose an explanation
valid for reversible and also irreversible phenomena, irreversibility being
common or realistic. It previously exposed points tricky to grasp, as the sign
of the work exchange, the adiabatic expansion in vacuum (free expansion) or the
transfer of heat between two bodies at the same temperature (isothermal
transfer). After having slightly modified the concepts of heat transfer (each
body produces heat according to its own temperature) and work (distinguishing
external pressure from internal pressure), the previous points are more easily
explained. At last, an engine efficiency in case of irreversible transfer is
proposed. This paper is focused on the form of thermodynamics, on “explanations”;
it does not question on “results” (except the irreversible free expansion of
1845...) which remain unchanged.

Abstract:
For a century, hypothesis of a variable time is laid down by the
Relativity Theory. This hypothesis can explain many Nature observations,
experiments and formulas, for example the Lorentz factor demonstration. Because
of such good explanations, the hypothesis of a variable time has been
validated. Nevertheless, it remains some paradoxes and some predictions which
are difficult to measure, as a reversible time or the time variation itself.
The purpose of this article is to study another hypothesis. If it gives interesting
results, it would mean that this alternative hypothesis can also be validated.
The idea in this paper is to replace the variable time by a variable inertial
mass. To the difference with the Theory of Relativity (where the inertial mass
and the gravitational mass are equal and variable), the gravitational mass is here
supposed to be constant. So, starting from the definition of the kinetic
energy, it is introduced the Lorentz factor. And then it is demonstrated the
value of the Lorentz factor thanks to a variable inertial mass. This variable
inertial mass can also explain experiments, like Bertozzi experiment. If this
alternative demonstration was validated, it could help to open doors, other
physical effects could be explained like the addition of velocities.

Abstract:
Is it possible to demonstrate the velocity
addition without using a variable time (as it is done in theory of relativity)?
The topic of this paper is to propose and demonstrate an alternative
expres-sion based on the conservation of linear momenta. The method proposed
here is to start from a physical object (and not from a mathematical point),
i.e. from an object with a mass. And the hy-pothesis is inertial mass to be
different from gravitational mass. Then, when impulses are added, we get an
expression of the velocity addition itself. When numerical predictions are
compared with experimental results, the differences are lower than the measures
uncertainty. And these numerical results are much close to those predicts by
the theory of relativity, nevertheless with a little difference at high
velocities. If this demonstration and this expression were validated, it would
allow giving an alternative explanation to some experiments and nature
observations as Doppler Effect on light celerity. But first, it would be
necessary to get from laboratories more precise experimental results, in order
to validate or not this hypothesis of the sum of linear momenta with a Variable
Inertial Mass.

Abstract:
Quantum Mechanics formalism remains difficult to understand and sometimes is confusing, especially in the explanation of ERP paradox and of Bell’s inequalities with entanglement photons. So a chart of conversion, in which elements are named differently, is proposed. Next, experiment about Bell’s inequalities violation is described in another way, and we hope a clearer one. Main result is Bell’s inequalities would not be violated! The explanation would come from confusion between the definition of the correlation function S1, and a property S2. And consequently, Einstein, Podolski and Rosen would be right on the local “hidden” variable.

Abstract:
Entropy function is used to demonstrate the Carnot efficiency, even if it is not always easy to understand its bases: the reversible movement or the reversible heat transfer. Here, it is proposed to demonstrate the Carnot efficiency “without” using the Entropy function. For this, it is necessary to enhance two concepts: heat transfer based on the source temperature and work transfer based on external pressure. This is achieved through 1) a balance exchanged heat, based on the source temperature and the system temperature, and 2) a balance exchanged work, based on the external pressure and the internal pressure. With these enhanced concepts, Laplace function and Carnot efficiency can be demonstrated without using the Entropy function (S). This is only a new formalism. Usual thermodynamics results are not changed. This new formalism can help to get a better description of realistic phenomena, like the efficiency of a realistic cycle.